The Presence of Trihalomethanes and Haloacetic Acids in Tropical Peat Water


  • Yuniati Zevi Research Group Water and Wastewater Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering,Institute of Technology Bandung
  • Muammar Qadafi Environmental Engineering Program, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesa No. 10, Bandung 40132, Indonesia
  • Suprihanto Notodarmojo Department of Environmental Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesa No. 10, Bandung 40132, Indonesia



dissolved organic matter, haloacetic acids, seasonal and tidal effects, trihalomethanes, tropical peat water


The presence of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in tropical peat water affects the appearance of trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) in natural water sources. However, information about the presence of THM and HAA in tropical peat water is still limited. This study was conducted to determine the presence of THMs and HAAs in tropical peat water taken from a canal and a river in Riau Peatland, Indonesia, influenced by the seasons and the tides. DOM was measured by dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and UV254 absorbance. The presence of THMs and HAAs was determined based on total THM4 and HAA5 and correlated with chloride and bromide concentrations. The concentrations of chloride and bromide in the river water were higher than in the canal water because of tidal influence. Total THM4 in canal water reached 22.700.90 and 10.780.71 g/L in the dry and rainy seasons, respectively, but only reached 16.641.93 and 5.520.05 g/L in the river water. In contrast to THM4, total HAA5 in the river water was higher than in the canal water and reached 104.014.67 and 106.399.53 g/L in the dry and rainy seasons, respectively, but only reached 9.830.48 and 56.876.11 g/L in the river water. THM4 predominated in the dry season while HAA5 predominated in the rainy season.


Download data is not yet available.


Qadafi, M., Notodarmojo, S. & Zevi, Y., Haloacetic Acids Formation Potential of Tropical Peat Water DOM Fractions and Its Correlation with Spectral Parameters, Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, 232, 319, 2021.

Kuokkanen, V., Kuokkanen, T., R J. & Lassi, U., Electrocoagulation treatment of peat bog drainage water containing humic substances, Water Research, 79, pp. 79-87, 2015.

Qadafi, M., Notodarmojo, S. & Zevi, Y., Performance of Microbubble Ozonation on Treated Peat Tropical Water: Effects on THM4 and HAA5 Precursor Formation based on DOM Hydrophobicity Fractions. Chemosphere, 279, 130642, 2021.

Sorlini, S. & Collivignarelli, C., Trihalomethane Formation during Chemical Oxidation with Chlorine, Chlorine Dioxide and Ozone of Ten Italian Natural Waters, Desalination, 176, pp. 103-111, 2005.

David, P. & Gilkey, D.C., Water Disinfection by-Products: Trihalomethanes and Carcinogenicity, Naturopathy Digest, 18(18), pp. 855-863, 1998.

Stevens, A.A., Chlorination of Organics in Drinking Water, J American Water Works Association, 68(11), pp. 615-620, 1976.

Navarro, I, Jimenez, B, Maya C, & Lucario, E.S., Assessment of Potential Cancer Risks from Trihalomethanes in Water Supply at Mexican Rural Communities, International Symposium on New Directions in Urban Water Management, UNESCO, Paris, 2007.

Wu, S., Anumol, T., Gandhi, J. & Snyder, S.A., Analysis of Haloacetic acids, Bromate, and Dalapon in Natural Waters by Ion Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry, Journal of Chromatography A, 1487, pp. 100-107, 2017.

Kanokkantapong, V., Marhaba, T.F., Panyaponyopol, B. & Pavasant, P., FTIR Evaluation of Functional Groups in the Formation of Haloacetic Acids during the Chlorination of Raw Water, Journal of Hazardous Material, 136(2), pp. 188-196, 2006.

Qadafi, M., Notodarmojo, S., Zevi, Y. & Maulana, Y.E., Trihalomethane and Haloacetic Acid Formation Potential of Tropical Peat Water: Effect of Tidal and Seasonal Variations, International Journal of GEOMATE, 18(66), pp 111-117. 2020

Ritson, J.P., Bell, M., Graham, N.J.D., Templeton, M.R., Brazier, R.E., Verhoef, A., Freeman, C. & Clark, J.M., Simulated Climate Change Impact on Summer Dissolved Organic Carbon release from Peat and Surface Vegetation: Implications for Drinking Water Treatment, Water Research, 67, pp. 66-76, 2014.

Sururi, M.R., Notodarmojo, S., Rosmini, D., Putra, P.S., Maulana, Y.E. & Dirgawati, M, An Investigation of a Conventional Water Treatment Plant in Reducing Dissolved Organic Matter and Trihalomethane Formation Potential from a Tropical River Water Source, Journal of Engineering and Technological Sciences, 52(2), pp. 271-288, 2020.

Guyo, U., Moyo, M., Nyamunda, B., Shumba, M. & Chingondo, F., Determination of Trihalomethanes in Raw Water and Treated Water Supply to a Local City in Zimbabwe, International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology, 02(02), pp. 1-7, 2013.

Syafilla, M., Sukandar & Haryanto, E., The Effect of Ozonation Process on Bromide-Containing Groundwaters in Bandung Area and Its Surrounding, ITB Journal of Engineering Sciences, 44(3), pp. 238-251, 2012.

Loos, R. & Barcel, Determination of Haloacetic Acids in Aqueous Environments by Solid-phase Extraction Followed by Ion-pair Liquid Chromatography-electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometric Detection, Journal of Chromatography A, 938, pp. 45-55, 2001.

Ged, E.C., and Boyer, T.H., Effect of seawater intrusion on formation of bromine-containing trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids during chlorination, Desalination, 345, pp. 85-93, 2014.

Potter, B.B. & Wimsatt, J., Method 415.3, Rev. 1.2: Determination of Total Organic Carbon and Specific UV Absorbance at 254 nm in Source Water and Drinking Water, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, 2009.

APHA American Public Health Association, Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater 20th Edition, 1998.

EPA 551.1 USEPA Method 551.1., Determination of Chlorination Disinfection By-products, Chlorinated Solvents, and Halogenated Pesticides/Herbicides in Drinking Water by Liquid-Liquid Extraction and Gas Chromatography with Electron-Capture Detection, Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory Office of Research and Development U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, 45268, 1990.

Liu, C., Chen, X.X., Zhang, J., Zhou, H.Z., Zhang, L. & Gou, Y.K, Advanced Treatment of Bio-treated Coal Chemical Wastewater by a Novel Combination of Microbubble Catalytic Ozonation and Biological Process, Separation and Purification Technology, 197, pp. 295-301, 2018.

USEPA Method 552.2., Determination of Haloacetic Acids in Drinking Water by Liquid-Liquid Extraction, Derivatization, and Gas Chromatography with Electron Capture Detection. Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory Office of Research and Development U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, 45268, 1995.

Xie, Y., Technical Note Analyzing Haloacetic Acids using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry, Water Research., 35(6), pp. 1599-1602, 2001.

Mahmud, M., Abdi, C. & Mu?min, B., Removal Natural Organic Matter (NOM) in Peat Water from Wetland Area by Coagulation-ultrafiltration Hybrid Process with Pretreatment Two-stage Coagulation, Journal of Wetlands Environmental Management, 11(1), pp. 42-49, 2013.

Sismiarty, N., Budiastutik, I. & Asmadi, Test the Effectiveness of the Performance of a Complete Peat Water Treatment Plant in reducing iron (Fe) and Color Content in Parit Sungai Raya Dalam, Jurnal Mahasiswa dan Peneliti Kesehatan-JuMantik, 2(3), pp. 54-69. 2015.

Konskinen, M., Sallantaus, T., &d Vasander, H., Post-restoration Development of Organic Carbon and Nutrient Leaching from Two Ecohydrologically Different Peatland Sites, Ecological Engineering, 37(7), pp. 1008-1016, 2011.

Del Guidice, R. & Lindo, Z., Short-term Leaching Dynamics of Three Peatland Plant Species Reveals How Shifts in Plant Communities may Affect Decomposition Processes, Geoderma, 285, pp. 110-116, 2017.

Bell M.C., Ritson. J.P., Verhoef, A., Brazier, R.E., Templeton, M.R., Graham, N.J.D., Freeman, C., & M. Clark, J.M., Sensitivity of Peatland Litter Decomposition to Changes in Temperature and Rainfall, Geoderma, 331, pp. 29-37, 2018.

Spencer, R.G.M., Hernes, P.J., Ruf, R., Baker, A., Dyda, R.Y., Stubbins, A. & Six, J., Temporal Controls on Dissolved Organic Matter and Lignin Biogeochemistry in a Pristine Tropical River, Democratic Republic of Congo, Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, 115, pp. 1-12, 2010.

Aschermann, G., Jeihanipour, A., Shen, J., Mkongo, G., Dramas, L., Crou J.-P. & Scher, A., Seasonal Variation of Organic Matter Concentration and Characteristics in the Maji ya Chai River (Tanzania): Impact on Treatability by Ultrafiltration, Water Research, 101, pp. 370-381, 2016.

Maartens, A., Swart, P. & Jacobs, E.P., Feedwater Pretreatment Methods to Reduce Membrane Fouling by Natural Organic Matter, Journal of Membrane Science, 163(1), pp. 51-62, 1999.

Yu, J., Sun, D.D. & Tay, J.H., Characteristics of Coagulation-flocculation of Humic Acid with Effective Performance of Polymeric Flocculant and Inorganic Coagulant, Water Science and Technology, 47(1), pp. 89-95, 2002.

El-Attafia, B. & Soraya, M., Presence and Seasonal Variation of Trihalomethanes (THMs)Levels in Drinking Tap Water in Monostaganem Province in Northwest Algeria, Electron Physician, 9, pp. 4364-4369, 2017.

Golea, D.M., Upton, A., Jarvis, P., Moore, G., Sutherland, S., Parson, S.A. & Judd, S.J., THM and HAA Formation from NOM in Raw and Treated Surface Waters, Water Research, 112, pp. 226-235, 2017.

Zhang, Y., Collins, C., Graham, N., Templeton, M.R., Huang, J. & Nieuwenhuijsen, Speciation and Variation in the Occurrence of Haloacetic Acids in Three Water Supply Systems in England, Water and Environment Journal, 24(3), pp. 237-245, 2009.

Gough, R., Holliman, P.J., Cooke, G.M. & Freeman, C., Characterization of Algogenic Organic Matter during an Algal Bloom and its Implications for Trihalomethane Formation, Sustainability of Water Quality and Ecology, 6, pp. 11-19. 2015.




How to Cite

Zevi, Y., Qadafi, M., & Notodarmojo, S. (2022). The Presence of Trihalomethanes and Haloacetic Acids in Tropical Peat Water. Journal of Engineering and Technological Sciences, 54(3), 220314.