Bus Superstructure Reinforcement for Safety Improvement against Rollover Accidents
Keywords:finite element analysis, Indonesian bus, superstructure reinforcement, rollover safety, UNR66
Bus rollover is considered the most dangerous road accident. To ensure bus safety against rollover accidents, the bus superstructure must conform to safety standards, one of which is UNR66. Unfortunately, in Indonesia, the increase in the number of buses has not been followed by bus safety improvement. In this paper, a numerical study on superstructure reinforcement to improve bus safety against rollover is presented. To reduce computational time, a simplified bus superstructure model comprising only three middle bays was used instead of a full bus model. Several superstructure reinforcements were implemented and their effectiveness in improving bus safety against rollover accidents was investigated. Among all reinforcements that were investigated, the most effective one was enhanced reinforcement by adding a connection between the seat structures and the side pillars. This modification yielded excellent results, as the modified superstructure showed a very significant improvement over a superstructure without reinforcement and it met the UNR66 residual space safety criterion.
Transportation Ministry Secretariat General, Transportation Statistics 2015, Transportation Ministry Secretariat General ? Data and Information Center, Jakarta, 2016. (Text in Indonesian)
US Department of Transportation, Motorcoach Safety Action Plan, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, 2012.
United Nations, Uniform Technical Prescriptions Concerning the Approval of Large Passenger Vehicles with regard to the Strength of Their Passenger Vehicles with regard to the Strength of Their Superstructure (Revision 1), Regulation No. 66 of the Economic Commission for Europe of the United Nations, 2006.
Jongpradist, P., Senawat, S. & Muangto, B., Improvement of Crashworthiness of Bus Structure under Frontal Impact, The 2015 World Congress on Advances in Structural Engineering and Mechanics (ASEM15), 2015.
Meira, A.D. Jr., Iturrioz, I., Walber, M. & Goedel, F., Numerical Analysis of an Intercity Bus Structure: A Simple Unifilar Model Proposal to Assess Frontal and Semifrontal Crash Scenarios, Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures, 13(9), pp. 1616-1640, Sept. 2016.
Li, H., Nimbalkar, R., Kwasniewski, L. & Wekezer, J., Finite Element Analysis of a Transit Bus, Structures Under Shock and Impact VIII, Jones, N. & Brebbia, C. A., eds., WIT Press, pp. 397-406, 2004.
Tanov, R., Brueggert, M. & Yang, S., Finite Element Modeling and Crash Analysis of a School Bus. SAE Technical Paper 2003-01-3425, 2003.
Satrijo, D., Kurdi, O., Haryanto, I., Yob, M.S., Riyantiarno, N., Taufiqurrahman, I., Rollover Performance Analysis of Electric Bus Superstructure Frame with Alternative Material Using Finite Element Method, AIP Conference Proceedings, 2217, 030153, 2020.
Wicaksono, S., Rahman, M.R.F., Mihradi, S. & Nurhadi, I., Finite Element Analysis of Bus Rollover Test in Accordance with UN ECE R66 Standard, Journal of Engineering and Technological Sciences, 49(6), pp. 799-810, Dec. 2017.
Bai, J., Meng, G. & Zuo, W., Rollover Crashworthiness Analysis and Optimization of Bus Frame for Conceptual Design, Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, 33(7), pp. 3363-3373, April 2019.
Abdiwijaya, C.Z., Rollover Safety Analysis of Indonesian Passenger's Bus Structure and Related Regulation Proposal, Master Thesis, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung, Indonesia, 2017. (Text in Indonesian)
Gsel, K.T. & Gsesl S., Analysis of the Superstructure of a Designed Bus in Accordance with Regulations ECE R 66, Gazi University Journal of Science, 23(1), pp. 71-79, January 2010.