Experimental Work for Bar Straightness Effect Evaluation of Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar
Keywords:aluminum 6061, bar straightness, experimental work, mild steel, SHPB
Bar straightness is one of several factors that can affect the quality of the strain wave signal in a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB). Recently, it was found that the bar components of the SHPB at the Lightweight Structures Laboratory displayed a deviation in straightness because of manufacturing limitations. An evaluation was needed to determine whether the strain wave signals produced from this SHPB are acceptable or not. A numerical model was developed to investigate this effect. In this paper, experimental work was performed to evaluate the quality of the signal in the SHPB and to validate the numerical model. Good agreement between the experimental results and the numerical results was obtained for the strain rates and stress-strain relationship for mild steel ST37 and aluminum 6061 specimen materials. The recommended bar straightness tolerance is proposed as 0.36 mm per 100 mm.
Hopkinson, J., On The Rupture of Iron Wire by a Blow, Manchester Lit Phil Soc. Proc., pp. 40-45, 1872.
Hopkinson, J., Further Experiments on The Rupture of Iron Wire, Manchester Lit Phil Soc. Proc., pp. 119-121, 1872
Kolsky H., An Investigation of the Mechanical Properties of Materials at Very High Rates of Loading, Proc. Phys. Soc. B, 62, pp. 676-700, 1949.
Korkolis, Y.P., Mitchell, B.R., Locke, M. & Kinsey, B.L., Plastic Flow and Anisotropy of a Low-carbon Steel over a Range of Strain-rates, International Journal of Impact Engineering, 121, pp.157-171, 2018.
Jia, S., Tan, Q., Ye, J., Zhu, Z. & Jiang, Z., Experiments on Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Austenitic Stainless Steel S30408 and S31608, Journal of Constructional Steel Reserach, 179(2), 106556, pp. 1-10, 2021.
Chen, J., Wei, H., Bao, K., Zhang, X., Cao, Y., Peng, Y., Kong, J. & Wang, K., Dynamic Mechanical Properties of 316L Stainless Steel Fabricated by an Additive Manufacturing Process, Journal of Materials Research and Technology, 11, pp. 170-179, 2021.
Sharma, S. & Samal, M.K., Experimental Investigation of Strain-Rate and Temperature Dependent Mechanical Properties of SA516Gr.70 Steel and Development of an Appropriate Material Model, Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance, 30, pp. 116-130, 2021.
Deshpande, V.S. & Fleck, N.A., Isotropic Constitutive Models for Metallic Foams, Journal of The Mechanics and Physics of Solids, 48, pp. 1253-1283, 2000.
Fila, T., Koudelka, P., Falta, J., Zlamal, P., Rada, V., Adorna, M., Bronder, S. & Jirousek, O., Dynamic Impact Testing of Cellular Solids and Lattice Structures: Application of Two-sided Direct Impact Hopkinson Bar, International Journal of Impact Engineering, 148, 103767, pp. 1-17, 2021.
Irausquin, I., Perez-Castellanos, J.L., Miranda, V. & Teixeira-Dias, F., Evaluation of the Effect of the Strain Rate on the Compressive Response of a Closed-Cell Aluminium Foam Using the Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar Test, Materials & Design, 47, pp. 698-705, 2013.
Deshpande, V.S. & Fleck, N.A., High Strain Rate Compressive Behaviour of Aluminium Alloy Foams, Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, 24, pp. 277-298, 2000.
Gilat, A., Goldberg, R.K. & Roberts, G.D., Experimental Study of Strain-Rate Dependent Behavior of Carbon/Epoxy Composite, Composites Science and Technology, 62, pp. 1469-1476, 2002.
Alvandi-Tabrizi, Y., Whisler, D.A., Kim, H. & Rabiei, A., High Strain Rates Behavior of Composite Metal Foam, Materials Science and Engineering A, 631, pp. 248-257, 2015.
Rajak, D.K. & Linul, E., Crushing Response of Composite Metallic Foams: Density and High Strain Rate Effects, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 871, 159614, pp. 1-9, 2021.
Jia, S., Wang, F., Zhou, J., Jiang, Z. & Xu, B., Study on the Mechanical Performances of Carbon Fiber/Epoxy Composite Material Subjected to Dynamical Compression and High Temperature Loads, Composites Structures, 258, 113421, pp. 1-14, 2021.
Akl, W., Aldraihem, O. & Baz, A., Dynamic Behavior of Polyurea Composites Subjected to High Strain Rate Loading, Finite Elements in Analysis and Design, 186, 103501, pp. 1-12, 2021.
Chouhan, H., Bhalla, N.A. & Bhatnagar, N., High Strain Rate Performance of UHMWPE Composites: Effect of Moisture Ingress and Egres, Materials Today, 26, 101709, pp. 1-12, 2021.
Elmahdy, A. & Verleysen, P., Mechanical Behavior of Basalt and Glass Textile Composites at High Strain Rates: A Comparison, Polymer Testing, 81, 106224, pp. 1-13, 2020.
Cady, C.M., Blumenthal, W.R., Gray III, G.T. & Idar, D.J., Determining the Constitutive Response of Polymeric Materials as a Function of Temperature and Strain Rate, Journal De Physique IV, 110, pp. 27-32, 2003.
Fan, J.T., Weerheijm, J. & Sluys, L.J., High Strain Rate Tensile Mechanical Response of a Polyurethane Elastomeric Material, Polymer, 65, pp. 72-80, 2015.
Fan, J.T., Weerheijm, J. & Sluys, L.J., Dynamic Compressive Mechanical Response of a Soft Polymer Material, Materials and Design, 79, pp.73-85, 2015.
Nasraoui, M., Forquin, P., Siad, L. & Rusinek, A., Influence of Strain Rate, Temperature and Adiabatic Heating on the Mechanical Behaviour of Poly-Methyl-Methacrylate: Experimental and Modelling Analyses, Materials and Design, 37, pp. 500-509, 2012.
Li, Z. & Lambros, J., Strain Rate Effects on the Thermomechanical Behavior of Polymers, International Journal of Solids and Structures, 38, pp. 3549-3562, 2001.
Zhou, J., Heisserer, U., Duke, P.W., Curtis, P.T., Morton, J. & Tagarielli, V.L., The Sensitivity of the Tensile Properties of PMMA, Kevlar and Dyneema to Temperature and Strain Rate, Polymer, 225, 123781, pp. 1-11, 2021.
Garcia-Gonzales, D., Rusinek, A., Bendarma, A., Bernier, R., Klosak, M. & Bahi, S., Material and Structural Behaviour of PMMA from Low Temperatures to Over The Glass Transition: Quasi-Static and Dynamic Loading, Polymer Testing, 81, 106263, pp. 1-9, 2020.
Hu, W., Guo, H., Chen, Y., Xie, R., Jing, H. & He, P., Experimental Investigation and Modeling of the Rate-Dependent Deformation Behavior of PMMA at Different Temperatures, European Polymer Journal, 85, pp. 313-323, 2016.
Chen, W. & Ravichandran, G., Dynamic Compressive Failure of a Glass Ceramic under Lateral Confinement, Journal of Mechanics and Physics of Solids, 45, pp. 1303-1328, 1997.
Lee, O.S. & Kim, G.H., Thickness Effects on Mechanical Behavior of a Composite Material (1001P) and Polycarbonate in Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar Technique, Journal of Materials Science Letters, 19, pp. 1805-1808, 2000.
Kariem, M.A., Beynon, J.H. & Ruan, D., Misalignment Effect in the Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar Technique, International Journal of Impact Engineering, pp. 60-70, 2012.
Wu, X., Yin, Q., Wei, Y. & Huang, C., Effect of Imperfect Experimental Conditions On Stress Waves in SHPB Experiments, Acta Mechanica Sinica, 31, pp. 827-836, 2015.
Afdhal, Gunawan, L., Dirgantara, T. & Santosa, S.P., Numerical Simulation for Bar Straightness Effect in SHPB, Procedia Engineering, Elsevier, 173, pp. 615-622, 2017.
Song, B., Connelly, K., Korellis, J., Lu, W-Y. & Antoun, B.R., Improved Kolsky-Bar Design for Mechanical Characterization of Materials Strain Rates, Meas Sci Technol, 20, 115701, pp. 1-8, 2009.
Chen, W. & Song, B., Split Hopkinson (Kolsky) Pressure Bar Design, Testing, and Applications, Springer New York, London, 2011.
Dunand, M., Gary, G. & Mohr, D., High Strain Rate Tensile Testing of Sheet Materials Using Three Hopkinson Pressure Bar, EPJ Web of Conference, 26, 01010, 1-4, 2012.
Park, C., Huh, H. & Park, J., Rate-Dependent Hardening Model for Polymer-bonded Explosives with an HTPB Polymer Matrix Considering a Wide Range of Strain Rates, Journal Composite Materials, 49(4), pp. 425-438, 2014.
Afdhal, Gunawan, L., Santosa, S.P., Putra, I.S. & Huh, H., Measurement of Mechanical Properties of ST 37 Material at High Strain Rates Using a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar, Applied Mechanics and Material, 660, pp. 562-566, 2014.
Butt, H.S.U., Xue, P., Jiang, T.Z. & Wang, B., Parametric Identification for Material of Viscoelastic SHPB from Wave Propagation Data Incorporating Geometrical Effects, International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, 91, pp. 46-54, 2014.
Lindholm, U.S., Some Experiments with the Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar, Journal of Mechanics Physics of Solids, 12, pp. 317-335, 1964.
Gama, B.A., Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar Technique: Experiments, Analyses and Aplication, Departement of Material Science and Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, 2004.
Kariem, M.A., Santiago, R.C., Govender, R., Shu, D.W., Ruan, D., Nurick, G., Alves, M., Lu, G. & Langdon, G.S., Round-Robin Test of Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar, International Journal of Impact Engineering, 126, pp. 62-75, 2019.
Gray III, G.T., Classic Split-Hopkinson Pressure Bar Testing, ASM Handbook. Mechanical Testing and Evaluation, 8, pp. 462-476, 2000.