Sulfur Removal in Bio-Briquette Combustion Using Seashell Waste Adsorbent at Low Temperature

Authors

  • Mahidin Mahidin Department of Chemical Engineering, Syiah Kuala University, Jalan Tgk. Syekh Abdur Rauf No. 7, Darussalam, Banda Aceh, 23111,
  • Asri Gani Department of Chemical Engineering, Syiah Kuala University, Jalan Tgk. Syekh Abdur Rauf No. 7, Darussalam, Banda Aceh, 23111,
  • Abrar Muslim Department of Chemical Engineering, Syiah Kuala University, Jalan Tgk. Syekh Abdur Rauf No. 7, Darussalam, Banda Aceh, 23111,
  • Husni Husin Department of Chemical Engineering, Syiah Kuala University, Jalan Tgk. Syekh Abdur Rauf No. 7, Darussalam, Banda Aceh, 23111,
  • M. Reza Hani Department of Chemical Engineering, Syiah Kuala University, Jalan Tgk. Syekh Abdur Rauf No. 7, Darussalam, Banda Aceh, 23111,
  • Muhammad Syukur Department of Chemical Engineering, Syiah Kuala University, Jalan Tgk. Syekh Abdur Rauf No. 7, Darussalam, Banda Aceh, 23111,
  • Hamdani Hamdani Department of Mechanical Engineering, Syiah Kuala University, Jalan Tgk. Syekh Abdur Rauf No. 7, Darussalam, Banda Aceh, 23111,
  • Khairil Khairil Department of Mechanical Engineering, Syiah Kuala University, Jalan Tgk. Syekh Abdur Rauf No. 7, Darussalam, Banda Aceh, 23111,
  • Samsul Rizal Department of Mechanical Engineering, Syiah Kuala University, Jalan Tgk. Syekh Abdur Rauf No. 7, Darussalam, Banda Aceh, 23111,

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.5614/j.eng.technol.sci.2016.48.4.8

Abstract

Presently, biomass is mostly utilized as co-fuel in coal combustion in view of energy diversification and emission reduction. However, since the coal content of bio-briquettes is high (up to 80% in this study), gas emissions such as those of SOx still occur. Therefore, the introduction of SO2adsorbent is common in coal briquette or bio-briquette combustion. A calcium-based material is usually used for this goal. The aim of this study was to observe the effects of desulfurization temperature and Ca/S ratio (Ca = calcium content in adsorbent; S = sulfur content in coal and biomass) on desulfurization efficiency and kinetics. The ratio of coal to biomass (palm kernel shell/PKS) was fixed at 90:10 (wt/wt) and the ratios of Ca to S were varied at 1:1, 1.25:1, 1.5:1, 1.75:1 and 2:1. The mixtures of coal, PKS and adsorbent were briquetted at a molding pressure of 6 ton/cm2 with Jatropha curcas seeds and starch mixture as binding agents. Desulfurization was performed within a temperature range of 300 to 500C for 720 seconds at an airflow rate of 1.2 L/min. The results showed that the highest desulfurization efficiency (90.6%) was associated with the Ca/S ratio of 2:1 and temperature of 400C. Moreover, the highest reaction rate constant of desulfurization was 0.280 min-1.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Cheng, J., Zhou, J., Liu, J., Zhou, Z., Huang, Z., Cao, X., Zhao, X. & Cen, K., Sulfur Removal at High Temperature during Coal Combustion in furnaces: A review, Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 29, pp. 381-405, 2003.

Holder, R.G., Milner, C.N. & Minchener, A.J., SO2 Control on Stoker-Fired Industrial Boilers, Inst. Chem. Eng. Symp. Series, 123, pp. 227-237, 1991.

Ren, Y.Z., Dong, J.F., Cao, Y.Q. & Qian, J.Q., A New Technology on Increasing Desulfurization Property of Clean Briquette, J. Eng. Thermophys, 20 (1), pp. 125-128, 1999.

Gani, A., Morishita, K., Kunihiro, N. & Naruse, I., Characteristics of Co-combustion of Low-rank Coal with Biomass, Energy & Fuels, 19(4), pp. 1652-1659, 2005.

Davidson, R.M., Experience of co-firing waste with coal, CCC/15, IEA Coal Research - The Clean Coal Centre London, pp. 32-48, 1999.

Hughes, E.E. & Tillman, D.A., Biomass Co-firing: Status and Prospects 1996, Fuel Processing Technology, 54(1-3), pp. 127-142, 1998.

Martin, C., Villamanan, M.A., Chamorro, C.R., Otero, J., Cabanillas, A.& Segovia, J.J., Low-grade Coal and Biomass Co-combustion on Fluidized Bed: Exergy analysis, Energy, 31, pp. 330-344, 2005.

Isobe, Y., Yamada, K., Wang, Q., Sakamoto, K., Uchiyama, I., Mizoguchi, T. & Zhou, Y., Measurement of Indoor Sulfur Dioxide Emission from Coal-biomass Briquettes, Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 163, pp. 341-353, 2005.

Kleisa, K., Lehmann, J., Verfuss, F. & Simon, G., Development of Environmentally Friendly Briquettes, Glueckauf-Forschungshefte, 55(4-5), pp. 117-122, 1994.

Skodras, G., Grammelis, P., Samaras, P., Vourliotis, P., Kakaras, E. & Sakellaropoulos, G.P., Emissions Monitoring during Coal-waste Wood Co-combustion in an Industrial Steam Boiler, Fuel, 81, pp. 547-554, 2002.

Donghee, H., Mungal, M.G. & Zamansky, V.M., Prediction of NOx Control by Basic and Advanced Gas Reburning using the Two-stage Lagrangian Model, Combustion and Flame, 119(4), pp. 483-493, 1999.

Lu, G., Kim, H., Yuan, J., Naruse, I., Ohtake, K. & Kamide, M., Experimental Study on Self-desulfurization Characteristics of Bio-briquette in Combustion, Energy & Fuels, 12(4), pp. 689-696, 1998.

Naruse, I., Kim, H., Lu, G., Yuan, J. & Ohtake, K., Study on Characteristics of Self-desulfurization and Self-denitrification in Bio-briquette combustion, Symposium (International) on Combustion, 27(2), pp. 2973-2979, 1998.

Mahidin, Gani, A. & Khairil, Physical Characterization and Desulfurization of Bio-briquette using Calcium-based Adsorbent, Makara of Technology Series, 15(2), pp. 178-182, 2011.

Mahidin, Syamsuddin, Y. & Rizal, S., Use of Biomass as Co-fuel in Briquetting of Low-rank coal: Strengthen the Energy Supply and Save the Environment, International Journal of Chemical, Nuclear, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, 7(12), pp. 643-648, 2013.

Mahidin, Gani, A., Hani, M.R., Syukur, M., Hamdani, Khairil, Rizal, S., Hadi, A. & Mahlia, T.M.I., Use of Green Mussel Shell as a Desulfurizer in the Blending of Low Rank Coal-biomass Briquette Combustion, Makara of Technology Series, 20(2), pp. 97-102, 2016.

Sage, P.W. & Ford, N.W.J., Review of Sorbent Injection Process for Low-cost Sulphur Dioxide Control, Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. A: J. Power Energy, 210(3), pp. 183-90, 1996.

Ford, N.W.J., Cooke, M.J., Sage, P.W. & Gibbs, B.M., SO2 Emissions Control by On-grate Sorbent Addition on Industrial Stoker-fired Plant, Trans. Inst. Chem. Eng. B: Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 73(1), pp. 59-69, 1995.

Osuwan, S., Bunyakiat, K. & Theerapabpisit, D., In-situ Desulfurization of Coal Briquettes by Lime, Journal of Science Society of Thailand, 15, pp. 17-37, 1989.

Masayoshi, S., Takashi, S., Azuchi, H., Hiroshi, Y. & Hi, J.K., Removal of SO2 from Flue Gas using Ultrafine CaO Particles, Journal of Chemical Engineering of Japan, 27(4), pp. 550-552, 1994.

Fernandez, J., Renedo, M.J., Pesquera, A. & Irabien, J.A., Effect of CaSO4 on the Structure and Use of Ca(OH)2/Fly Ash Sorbents for SO2 Removal, Powder Technology, 119(2-3), pp. 201-205, 2001.

Ma, X., Kaneko, T., Tashimo, T., Yoshida, T. & Kato, K., Use of limestone for SO2 Removal from Flue Gas in the Semidry FGD Process with a Powder-particle Spouted Bed, Chemical Engineering Science, 55(20), pp. 4643-4652, 2000.

Garea, A., Herrera, J.L., Marques, J.A. & Irabien, A., Kinetics of dry flue gas desulfurization at low temperatures using Ca(OH)2: Competitive reactions of sulfation and carbonation, Chemical Engineering Science Journal, 56(4), pp. 1387-1393, 2001.

Lalai, A., Mura, G. & Viola, A., Removal of Sulphur during the Combustion of Coal by Adding Limestone, International Chemical Engineering, 19, pp. 445-453, 1991.

Siritheerasas, P., Bunyakiat, K. & Osuwan, S., Emission of Sulphur Dioxide during Coal Briquette Burning in a Thai Traditional Cooking Stove, Thammasat International Journal of Science and Technology, 5(2), pp. 34-42, 2000.

Fauzi, A.M., Agustina, S.E. & Nugraheni, J.I., The Utilization of Tabbaco Wastes for Bio-briquette Production as an Alternative Fuel, Industri: Jurnal Ilmiah Sains dan Teknologi, 9(1), pp. 75-79, 2010.

Kong, L., Tian, S.-H., Li, Z., Luo, R., Chen, D., Tu, Y.-T. & Xiong, Y., Conversion of Recycled Sawdust into High HHV and low NOx Emission Bio-char Pellets using Lignin and Calcium Hydroxide Blended Binders, Renewable Energy, 60, pp. 559-565, 2013.

Ahn, B.J., Chang, H., Lee, S.M., Choi, D.H., Cho, S.T., Han, G. & Yang, I., Effect of Binders on the Durability of Wood Pellets Fabricated from Larixkaemferi C. and Liriodendron tulipifera L. Sawdust, Renewable Energy, 62, pp. 18-23, 2014.

Kratzeisen, M. & M1/4ller, J., Suitability of Jatropha Seed Shells as Fuel for Small-scale Combustion Units, Renewable Energy, 51, pp. 46-52, 2013.

Kang, S.B., Kim, J.J. & Im, Y.H., An Experimental Investigation of a Direct Burning of Crude Jatropha Oil (CJO) and Pitch in a Commercial Boiler System, Renewable Energy, 54, pp. 8-12, 2013.

Mahidin, Ogaki, Y., Nakata, Y. & Usui, H., Improvement of Devolatilization and Control of Low-temperature Oxidation by Vacuum Drying and Tar Coating Treatments of Low-rank Coal, Journal of Chemical Engineering of Japan, 36(7), pp. 769-775, 2003.

Mahidin, Ogaki, Y., Usui, H.& Okuma, O., The Advantages of Vacuum Treatments in the Thermal Upgrading of Low-rank Coals on the Improvement of Dewatering and Devolatilization, Fuel Processing Technology, 84, pp. 147-160, 2003.

Zhao, H., Yu, J., Liu, J. & Tahmasebi, A., Experimental Study on the Self-heating Characteristics of Indonesian Lignite during Low Temperature Oxidation, Fuel, 150, pp. 55-63, 2015.

Suryaputra, W., Winata, I., Indraswati, N. & Ismadji, S., Waste Capiz (Amusiumcristatum) Shell as a New Heterogeneous Catalyst for Biodiesel Production, Renewable Energy, 50, pp. 795-799, 2013.

Buasri, A., Chaiyut, N., Loryuenyong, V., Worawanitchaphong, P. & Trongyong, S., Calcium Oxide Derived from Waste Shells of Mussel, Cockle, and Scallop as the Heterogeneous Catalyst for Biodiesel Production, The Scientific World Journal, pp. 1-7, 2013.

Boey, P.-L., Maniam, G.P., Hamid, S.A. & Ali, D.M.H., Utilization of Waste Cockle Shell (Anadaragranosa) in Biodiesel Production from Palm Olein: Optimization Using Response Surface Methodology, Fuel, 90, pp. 2353-2358, 2011.

Hansen, P.F.B., Dam-Johansen, K. & Ostergaard, K., High Temperature Reaction between Sulphur Dioxide and Limestone-the effect of Periodically Changing Oxidizing and Reducing Conditions, Chem. Eng. Sci., 48(7), pp. 1325-1341, 1993.

Weisweiler, W. & Roy, G.K., Kinetics of Lime-limestone Sulfation: Review of Lime Reactivity and Sulfation Kinetics in the Dry Limestone Desulfurization Processes, Journal High Temperatures - High Pressures, 13, pp. 333-345, 1981.

Klingspor, J., Strmberg, A., Karlsson, H.T. & Bjerle, I., A Kinetic Study of the Dry SO2-limestone Reaction at Low Temperature, Chemical Engineering Communication, 22, pp. 81-103, 1983.

Simon, G.A., Garman, A.R. & Boni, A.A., The Kinetic Rate of SO2 Sorption by CaO, AIChE Journal, 33, pp. 211-216, 1987.

Downloads

Published

2016-09-30

Issue

Section

Articles