Cu(II) Ions Adsorption Using Activated Carbon Prepared from Pithecellobium Jiringa (Jengkol) Shells With Ultrasonic Assistance: Isotherm, Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies


  • Abrar Muslim Process Technology Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, Syiah Kuala University
  • Ellysa Ellysa Process Technology Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, Syiah Kuala University
  • Syahiddin Dahlan Said Process Technology Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering



activated carbon, isotherm, jengkol (Pithecellobium jiringa), kinetic, thermodynamic, ultrasound.


Adsorption of Cu(II) ions from aqueous solution onto activated carbon (AC) prepared from Pithecellobium jiringa shell (PJS) waste was investigated by conducting batch mode adsorption experiments. The activation with ultrasound assistance removed almost all functional groups in the PJS-AC, while more cavities and pores on the PJS-AC were formed, which was confirmed by FTIR and SEM analyses. The Cu(II) ion adsorption isotherm fitted best to the Freundlich model with average R2 at 0.941. It was also correlated to the Langmuir isotherm with average R2 at 0.889. This indicates that physical sorption took place more than chemical sorption. The maximum Cu(II) ion adsorption capacity onto the PJS-AC for a dose of 1 g was 104.167 mg/g at 30C and pH 4.5, where the Langmuir constant was 0.523 L/mg, the Freundlich adsorption intensity was 0.523, and the Freundlich constant was 5.212 L/mg. Cu(II) adsorption followed the pseudo second-order kinetic (PSOKE) model with average R2 at 0.998, maximum adsorption capacity at 96.154 mg/g, PSOKE adsorption rate constant at 0.200 g/mg.min, temperature at 30 C and pH at 4.5. The changes in enthalpy, entropy, free energy and activation energy were determined, and the results confirmed that Cu(II) adsorption onto the PJS-AC was exothermic chemical adsorption in part. There was a decrease in the degree of freedom and the adsorption was non-spontaneous.


Download data is not yet available.


Hawkes, S.J., What is a Heavy Metal?, Journal of Chemical Education, 74(11), pp. 1374-1380, 1997.

Srivastava, N.K. & Majumder, C.B., Novel Biofiltration Methods for the Treatment of Heavy Metals from Industrial Wastewater, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 151(1), pp. 1-8, 2008.

Munaf, E. & Takeuchi, T., Monitoring of University Effluents, In: Hazardous Waste Control in Research and Education, Korenaga, T., Tsukube, H., Shinoda, S. & Nakamura, I., eds. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1994.

Bala, M., Shehu, R.A. & Lawal, M., Determination of the Level of Some Heavy Metals in Water Collected from Two Pollution - Prone Irrigation Areas Around Kano Metropolis, Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 1(1), pp. 6-38, 2008.

Gua, Y.B, Feng, H., Chen, C., Jia, C.J., Xiong, F. & Lu, Y., Heavy Metal Concentration in Soil and Agricultural Products Near an Industrial District, Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 22(5), pp. 1357-1362, 2013.

Lakherwal, D., Adsorption of Heavy Metals: A Review, International Journal of Environmental Research and Development, 4(1), pp. 41-48, 2014.

Theophanides, T. & Anastassopoulou, J., Copper and Carcinogenesis, Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology, 42(1), pp. 57-64, 2002.

Carl, L.K., Harry, J.M. & Elizabeth, M.W., A Review: The Impact of Copper on Human Health, New York: International Copper Association Ltd., 2003.

Minamisawa, M., Minamisawa, H., Yoshida, S. & Takai, N., Adsorption Behavior of Heavy Metals on Biomaterials, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 52(18), pp. 5606-5611, 2004.

Tobin, J.M. & Roux, J.C., Mucor Biosorbent for Chromium Removal, Water Research, 32(5), pp. 1407-1416, 1998.

Leung, W.C., Wong, M.F., Chua, H., Lo, W., Yu, P.H.F. & Leung, C.K., Removal and Recovery of Heavy Metals by Bacteria Isolated from Activated Sludge Treating Industrial Effluents and Municipal Wastewater, Water Science and Technology, 41(12), pp. 233-240, 2000.

Eccles, H., Treatment of Metal-Contaminated Wastes: Why Select a Biological Process?, Trends in Biotechnology, 17(12), pp. 462-465, 1999.

Gupta, H. & Gogate, P.R., Intensified Removal of Copper from Waste Water Using Activated Water Melon Based Biosorbent in The Presence of Ultrasound, Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 30, pp. 113-122, 2016.

Wong, K.K., Lee, C.K., Low, K.S. & Haron, M.J., Removal of Cu and Pb by Tartaric Acid Modified Rice Husk from Aqueous Solution, Chemosphere, 50(1), pp. 23-28, 2003.

Basso, M.C., Cerrella, E.G. & Cukierman, A.L., Lignocellulosic Materials as Potential Biosorbents of Trace Toxic Metals from Wastewater, Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 41(15), pp. 3580-3585, 2002.

Baquero, M.C., Giraldo, L., Moreno, J.C., Suarez-Garca, F., Martnez-Alonso, A. & Tascon, J.M.D., Activated Carbons by Pyrolysis of Coffee Bean Husks in Presence of Phosphoric Acid, Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 70(2), pp. 779-784, 2003.

Muslim, A., Zulfian, Ismayanda, M.H., Devrina, E. & Fahmi, H., Adsorption of Cu(II) from The Aqueous Solution by Chemical Activated Adsorbent of Areca Catechu Shell, Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, 10(12), pp. 1654-1666, 2015.

Research In China., China Activated Carbon Industry Report, 2014-2017, 2015.

Moreno-Pirajan, J.C. & Giraldo, L., Adsorption of Copper from Aqueous Solution by Activated Carbons Obtained by Pyrolysis of Cassava Peel, Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 87(2), pp. 188-193, 2010.

Klasson, K.T., Wartelle, L.H., Rodgers, J.E. & Lima, I.M., Copper(II) Adsorption by Activated Carbons from Pecan Shells: Effect of Oxygen Level During Activation, Industrial Crops and Products, 30(1), pp. 72-77, 2009.

Runtti, H., Tuomikoski, S., Kangas, T., Lassi, U., Kuokkanen, T. & Ram, J., Chemically Activated Carbon Residue from Biomass Gasification as A Sorbent for Iron(II), Copper(II) and Nickel(II) Ions, Journal of Water Process Engineering, 4, pp. 12-24, 2014.

Bouhamed, F., Elouear, Z. & Bouzid, J., Adsorptive Removal of Copper(II) from Aqueous Solution on Activated Carbon Prepared from Tunisian Date Stones: Equilibrium, Kinetic and Thermodynamics, Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers, 43(5), pp. 741-749, 2012.

Imamoglu, M. & Tekir, O., Removal of Copper (II) and Lead (II) Ion from Aqueous Solution by Adsorption on Activated Carbon from a New Precursor Hazelnut Husks, Desalination, 228(1-3), pp. 108-113, 2008.

Demirbas, E., Dizge, N., Sulak, M.T. & Kobya, M., Adsorption Kinetic and Equilibrium of Copper from Aqueous Solution Using Hazelnut Shell Activated Carbon, Chemical Engineering Journal, 148(2-3), pp. 480-487, 2009.

MilenkoviA, D.D., BojiA, A.L.J. & VeljkoviA, V.B., Ultrasound-Assisted Adsorption of 4-Dodecylbenzene Sulfonate from Aqueous Solution by Corn Cob Activated Carbon, Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 20(3), pp. 955-962, 2013.

Muslim, A., Australian Pine Cones-Based Activated Carbon for Adsorption of Copper in Aqueous Solution, Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, 12(2), pp. 280-295, 2017.

Lim, T.K., Archidendron Jiringa, Edible Medicinal and Non-Medicinal Plants, Springer Netherlands, pp. 544-548, 2012.

BPS - Statistics Indonesia, Vegetables Production in Indonesia, 2009-2013, 2015. ATAP.pdf

Kurniawan, T.A., Chan, G.Y.S., Lo, W.H. & Babel, S., Comparisons of Low-Cost Adsorbents for Treating Waste Waters Laden with Heavy Metals, Science of the Total Environment, 366(2-3), pp. 409-426, 2006.

Dehdashti, A., Khavanin, A., Rezaee, A. & Asilian, H., Regeneration of Granular Activated Carbon Saturated with Gaseous Toluene by Microwave Irradiation, Journal of Engineering Environmental Science, 34, pp. 49-58, 2010.

Hesas, R.H., Daud, W.M.A.W., Sahu, J.N. & Arami-Niya, A., The Effects of a Microwave Heating Method on the Production of Activated Carbon from Agricultural Waste: A Review, Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 100, pp. 1-11, 2013.

Chen, C.J., Wei, L.B., Zhao, P.C., Li, Y., Hu, H.Y. & Qin, Y.B., Study on Preparation of Activated Carbon from Corncob Furfural Residue with ZnCl2 by Microwave Irradiation, New Materials and Advanced Materials, 152-153(1-2), pp. 1322-1327, 2011.

Commenges-Bernole, N. & Marguerie, J., Adsorption of Heavy Metals on Sonicated Activated Sludge, Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 16(1), pp. 83-87, 2009.

Lee, H.W., Insyani, R., Prasetyo, D., Prajitno, H. & Sitompul, J.P., Molecular Weight and Structural Properties of Biodegradable PLA Synthesized with Different Catalysts by Direct Melt Polycondensation, Journal of Engineering and Technological Sciences, 47(4), pp. 364-373, 2015.

Yang, T. & Lua, A.C., Characteristics of Activated Carbons Prepared from Pistachio-Nut Shells by Physical Activation, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 267(2), pp. 408-417, 2003.

Chakravarty, P., Sarma, N.S. & Sarma, H.P., Removal of Lead(II) from Aqueous Solution Using Heartwood of Areca Catechu Powder, Desalination, 256(1-3), pp. 16-21, 2010.

Zengin, A., Akalin, M.K., Tekin, K., Erdem, M., Turga, T. & Karagoz, K., Preparation and Characterization of Activated Carbons from Waste Melamine Coated Chipboard by Koh Activation, Ekoloji, 21(85), pp. 123-128, 2012.

Mengistie, A.A., Siva, R.T., Prasada, R.A.V. & Malairajan, S., Removal of Lead(II) Ion from Aqueous Solution Using Activated Carbon from Militia Ferruginea Plant Leaves, Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia, 22(3), pp. 349-360, 2008.

Langmuir, I., The Adsorption of Gases on Plane Surface of Glass, Mica and Platinum, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 40(9), pp. 1361-1403, 1918.

Karagoz, S., Tay, T., Ucar, S. & Erdem, M., Activated Carbons from Waste Biomass by Sulfuric Acid Activation and Their Use on Methylene Blue Adsorption, Bioresource Technology, 99(14), pp. 6214-6222, 2008.

Freundlich, H.M.F., Over the Adsorption in Solution, The Journal of Physical Chemistry, 57, pp. 385-471, 1906.

Silverstein, R.M., Bassler, G.C. & Morrill, T.C., Spectrometric Identification of Organic Compounds, 4th ed., New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1981.

Lagergren, S., About the Theory of So-Called Adsorption of Soluble Substances, Kungliga Svenska Vetenskapsakademies Handlingar, 24(4), pp. 1-39, 1898.

Ho, Y.S., Wase, D.A.J. & Forster, C.F., Kinetic Studies of Competitive Heavy Metal Adsorption by Sphagnum Moss Peat, Environmental Technology, 17(1), pp. 71-77, 1996.

Rajamohan, N., Rajasimman, M., Rajeshkannan, R. & Sivaprakash, B., Kinetic Modeling and Isotherm Studies on a Batch Removal of Acid Red 114 by an Activated Plant Biomass, Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, 8(6), pp. 778-792, 2013.

Papirer, E., Adsorption on Silica Surfaces: Surfactant Science Series, New York, USA: Marcel Dekker, Inc., 2000.

Kumar, A. & Awasthi, A., Bioseparation Engineering, New Dehli, India: I.K. International Publishing House, Pvt. Ltd., 2009.

Rao, S.R., Surface Chemistry of Froth Flotation, 1, Fundamentals, New York, USA: Springer Science, 2004.

Tan, I.A.W., Ahmad, A.L. & Hameed, B.H., Adsorption Isotherm, Kinetic, Thermodynamics and Desorption Studies of 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol on Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch-Based Activated Carbon, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 164(2-3), pp. 473-482. 2009.

Muslim, A., Aprilia, S., Suha, T.A. & Fitri Z., Adsorption of Pb(II) Ions from Aqueous Solution Using Activated Carbon Prepared from Areca Catechu Shell: Kinetic, Isotherm and Thermodynamic Studies, Journal of the Korean Chemical Society, 61(3), pp. 89-96, 2017.

Worch, E., Adsorption Technology in Water Treatment: Fundamentals, Processes, and Modeling, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2012.

Mohan, D., Gupta, V.K., Srivastava, S.K. & Chander, S., Kinetic of Mercury Adsorption from Waste Water Using Activated Carbon Derived from Fertilizer Waste, Colloids and Surfaces, 177(2-3), pp. 169-181, 2001.

Bansode, R.R., Losso, J.N., Marshall, W.E., Rao, R.M. & Portier, R.J., Adsorption of Metal Ions by Pecan Shell-Based Granular Activated Carbons, Bioresource Technology, 89(2), pp. 115-119, 2003.

Kobya, M., Demirbas, E., Senturk, E. & Ince, M., Adsorption of Heavy Metal Ions from Aqueous Solutions by Activated Carbon Prepared from Apricot Stone, Bioresource Technology, 96(13), pp. 1518-1521, 2005.




How to Cite

Muslim, A., Ellysa, E., & Said, S. D. (2017). Cu(II) Ions Adsorption Using Activated Carbon Prepared from Pithecellobium Jiringa (Jengkol) Shells With Ultrasonic Assistance: Isotherm, Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies. Journal of Engineering and Technological Sciences, 49(4), 472-490.




Most read articles by the same author(s)