The Determination of Algae Group as Bioindicator of Water Quality Change Affected by Mercury Release from Artisanal Small-Scale Gold Mining (ASGM)
Keywords:algae, abundance, gold mining, mercury contamination, multivariate analysis
Artisanal small scale gold mining (ASGM) practices typically use mercury for amalgamation. Near water environments this can degrade water quality and aquatic biota, including algae. Changes in algal communities can reflect water environment disturbance. The aim of this study was to determine if algae can be used as bioindicator of river water quality impacted by ASGM activities. The research was conducted from July to October 2018 at thirty sampling sites along rivers near ASGM areas in several regencies of Indonesia. Composite samples of water and sediment were collected. A plankton net and brushing methods were used to collect planktonic and benthic algae, respectively. The physicochemical parameters of the water and the sediment as well as the dominant algae genera were analyzed statistically with principal component analysis. The results showed that the total mercury concentration in the water ranged from <0.04 to 20 g.L-1, while in the sediment the maximum value was 13,500 g.kg-1. The total mercury content in the sediment was negatively correlated with the dominant benthic Navicula at a significance level of p < 0.05. This means that a low density of benthic Navicula can be proposed as a bioindicator of water quality, indicating the increase of mercury pollution in sediment.
Ismawati, Y., Opening the Pandora?s Box of Poboya: The Social and Environmental Production of Suffering in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia, Master Thesis, Environmental Change and Management., Oxford University., Oxford, 2011.
Lobo, F.D.L., Costa, M., Novo, E.M.L.D.M. & Telmer, K., Effects of Small-Scale Gold Mining Tailings on The Underwater Light Field in The Tapajos River Basin Brazilian Amazon, Remote Sens, 9, 861, Aug. 2017.
Sui, Sun & Wang (eds), Regulation of Artisanal Small Scale Gold Mining (ASGM) in Ghana and Indonesia as Currently Implemented Fails to Adequately Protect Aquatic Ecosystem, An Interdisciplinary Response to Mine Water Challenges, pp. 401-405, 2014.
Gray, N.F., Water Science and Technology, CRC Press, 2017.
Markert, B.A., Breure, A.M. & Zechmeister, H.G., Bioindicators and Biomonitors, Elsevier Science, Netherlands, 2003.
Ariesyady, H. D., Fadilah, R., Kurniasih, Sulaeman, A. & Kardena, E., The Distribution of Microalgae in a Stabilization Pond System of a Domestic Wastewater Treatment Plant in a Tropical Environment (Case Study: Bojongsoang Wastewater Treatment Plant), J. Eng. Technol. Sci., 48(1), pp. 86-98, Feb. 2016.
Omar, W.M.W., Perspectives on the Use of Algae as Biological Indicators for Monitoring and Protecting Aquatic Environments, Trop Life Sci Res, 21(2), pp. 51-67, Dec. 2010.
Agarwal, S.K., Environmental Monitoring, APH Publishing, 2005.
Martins, M. V. A., Pinto, A.F.S., Frontalini, F., Fonseca, M.C.M.D., Terroso, D.L., Laut, L.L.M., Zaaboub, N., Rodrigues, M.A.D.C. & Rocha, F., Can Benthic Foraminifera Be Used as Bio-indicators of Pollution in Areas with a Wide Range of Physicochemical Variability? Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 182, pp. 211-225, Dec. 2016.
Nhiwatiwa, T., Dalu, T. & Sithole, T., Assessment of River Quality in a Subtropical Austral River System: A Combined Approach Using Benthic Diatoms and Macroinvertebrates, Appl Water Sci, 7, pp. 4785-4792, Jul. 2017.
Chazanah, N., Muntalif, B.S., Sudjono, P., Rahmayunita, I. & Suantika, G., Determinant Parameters for Upstream Ecological Status Assessment of Citarum River Indonesia, GEOMATE, 15(50), pp. 205-216, Oct. 2018.
Bellinger, E.G. & Sigee, D.C., Freshwater Algae: Identification, Enumeration and Use as Bioindicators, John Wiley & Sons, 2015.
Necchi Jr, O., River Algae, Springer International Publishing, 2016.
Wehr, J.D., Freshwater Algae of North America, Elsevier, 2015.
APHA, Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater, APHA-AWWA-WEF, 2005.
Tudesque, L., Grenouillet, G., Gevrey, M., Khazraie, K. & Brosse, S., Influence of Small-Scale Gold Mining on French Guiana Streams: Are Diatom Assemblages Valid Disturbance Sensors?, Ecologial Indicators, 14(1), pp. 100-106, March. 2012.
Hammond, D. S., Gond, V., Thoisy, B., Forget, P. M. & DeDijn, B.P.E., Causes and Consequences of a Tropical Forest Gold Rush in the Guiana Shield, South America, Ambio, 36(8), pp. 661-670, Dec. 2007.
Yule, C.M., Boyero, L. & Richard, M., Effects of Sediment Pollution on Food Webs in a Tropical River (Borneo, Indonesia), Marine and Freshwater Research, 61, 204-213, 2010.
Macdonald, K.F., Lund, M. & Blanchette, M. (ed), Impacts of Artisanal Small-Scale Gold Mining on Water Quality of a Tropical River (Surow River, Ghana), 10th International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage & IMWA Annual Conference, pp. 1-12, 2015.
CCME, Updated in: Canadian Environmental Quality Guidelines, Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment, Canada, 2011.
PSLB3, Mapping the Impact of Mercury on the Environment, Health and Socio-Economic of Communities Around Small-Scale Gold Mining Sites in 4 Districts, Kementrian Lingkungan Hidup dan Kehutanan Indonesia, Jakarta, Des. 2018. (Text in Indonesian)
Xu, J., Kleja, D.B., Biester, H., Lagerkvist, A. & Kumpiene, J., Influence of Particle Size Distribution, Organic Carbon, pH and Chlorides on Washing of Mercury Contaminated Soil, Chemosphere, 109, pp. 99-105, Aug. 2014.
Fath, B.D., Encyclopedia of Ecology, Elsevier, 2019.
Stevenson, R.J., Algal Ecology: Freshwater Benthic Ecosystem, Academic Press, 1996.
Pattanaik, D., Schumann, R. & Karstan, U., Algae and Cyanobacteria in Extreme Environments, Springer, 2007.
Gasse, F. & Tekaia, F., Transfer Functions for Estimating Paleoecological Conditions (pH) from East African Diatoms, Hydrobiologia, 103, pp. 85-90, Jul. 1983.
Langford, T., Ecological Effects of Thermal Discharges, Elsevier Applied Science Publishers, 1990.
Rao, S.S., Acid Stress and Aquatic Microbial Interactions, CRC Press, 1989.
Das, M. & Ramanujam, P., Metal Content in Water and in Green Filamentous Algae Microspora quadrata Hazen from Coal Mine Impacted Streams of Jaintia Hills District, Meghalaya, India, International Journal of Botany, 7(2), pp. 170-176. 2011.
P, F., Coste, M., Ricard, F. & Boudou, A., Effects of Methylmercury and Inorganic Mercury on Periphytic Diatom Communities in Freshwater Indoor Microcosms, Journal of Applied Phycology, 9(3), pp. 215-227, June. 1997.
Rainbow, P.S., Trace Metals in the Environment and Living Organisms, Cambridge University Press, 2018.