Case Study of a Small Scale Reverse Osmosis System for Treatment of Mixed Brackish Water and STP Effluent
Keywords:domestic wastewater, chemical cleaning, ion rejection, reuse, RO membrane.
AbstractA case study on utilizing reverse osmosis (RO) technology to fulfill fresh water needs at a mall and a hotel has been done on Bali Island, Indonesia. A mix of brackish water and sewage treatment plant (STP) effluent was used as feed water in the RO system. The system used 36 membrane elements (CSM RE 8040 BLN) arranged into two stages: 8 pressure vessels (PVs) in the first stage and 4 PVs in the second stage, each loaded with 3 membranes. The objectives of this research were to assess the cleaning effectivity in the plant, to evaluate the cleaning of 1 membrane element using a CIP system, and to assess the use of the membrane for filtration in the pre-treatment system. SEM and FTIR analysis indicated that the foulants on the membrane surface were dominated by organic foulants and inorganic deposits. To clean the discarded membrane the proposed method used NaOH solution (pH 12 and pH 13) and citric acid (pH 2 and pH 3). All membranes displayed a dramatic decline in rejection of about 80%. Based on the rejection tests of SO42-, Cl-, turbidity reduction approached 100%. It can be concluded that an RO membrane that has undergone selectivity decline can be re-used as a filtration membrane in the pre-treatment system.
Jung, Y.J., Kiso, Y., Yamada, T., Shibata, T. & Lee, T.G.,Chemical Cleaning of Reverse Osmosis Membranes Used for Treating Wastewater from a Rolling Mill Process, Desalination, 190(1), pp. 181-18, 2006.
Kang, G.D., & Cao, Y.M., Development of Antifouling Reverse Osmosis Membranes for Water Treatment: A Review. Water research, 46(3), pp. 584-600, 2012.
Pandey, S.R., Jegatheesan, V., Baskaran, K. & Shu, L., Fouling in Reverse Osmosis (RO) Membrane in Water Recovery from secondary Effluent: A Review. Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/Technology, 11(2), pp. 125-145, 2012.
Ochando-Pulido, J.M., Rodriguez-Vives, S., Hodaifa, G. & Martinez-Ferez, A., Impacts of Operating Conditions on Reverse Osmosis Performance of pretreated olive mill wastewater, Water research, 46(15), pp. 4621-4632, 2012.
Yang, X., Wang, R., Fane, A.G., Tang, C.Y. & Wenten, I.G., Membrane Module Design and Dynamic Shear-induced Techniques to Enhance Liquid Separation by Hollow Fiber Modules: A Review. Desalination and Water Treatment, 51(16-18), pp. 3604-3627, 2013.
Wenten, I.G. & Widiasa, I.N., Enzymatic Hollow Fiber Membrane Bioreactor for Penicilin Hydrolysis. Desalination, 149(1), pp. 279-285, 2002.
Wenten, I.G., Mechanisms and Control of Fouling in Crossflow Microfiltration. Filtration & separation, 32(3), pp. 252-253, 1995.
Aryanti, P.T.P., Joscarita, S.R., Wardani, A.K., Subagjo, S., Ariono, D. & Wenten, I.G., The Influence of PEG400 and Acetone on Polysulfone Membrane Morphology and Fouling Behaviour, Journal of Engineering and Technological Sciences, 48(2), pp. 135-149, 2016.
CSM, CSM Reverse Osmosis Membrane Technical Manual. Saehan Industries Inc., 2006.
Wenten, I.G. & Khoiruddin, Reverse Osmosis Applications: Prospect and challenges, Desalination, 391, pp. 112-125, 2016.
Lee, S., Ang, W.S., & Elimelech, M., Fouling of Reverse Osmosis Membranes by Hydrophilic Organic Matter: Implications for Water Reuse, Desalination, 187(1), pp. 313-321, 2006.
Widiasa, I.N., Susanto, A.A. & Susanto, H., Performance of an Integrated Membrane Pilot Plant for Wastewater Reuse: Case Study of Oil Refinery Plant in Indonesia, Desalination and Water Treatment, 52(40-42), pp. 7443-7449, 2014.
Fritzmann, C., Lwenberg, J., Wintgens, T. & Melin, T., State-of-the-art of Reverse Osmosis Desalination, Desalination, 216(1), pp. 1-76, 2007.
Uchymiak, M., Lyster, E., Glater, J.& Cohen, Y.,Kinetics of Gypsum Crystal Growth on a Reverse Osmosis Membrane, Journal of Membrane Science, 314(1), pp. 163-172, 2008.
Huajuan, M., A study on Organic Fouling of Reverse Osmosis Membrane, PhD Dessertation, Department of Civil Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore, 2009
Ochando-Pulido, J.M., Victor-Ortega, M.D. & Martnez-Ferez, A., On the Cleaning Procedure of a Hydrophilic Reverse Osmosis Membrane Fouled by Secondary-treated Olive Mill Wastewater, Chemical Engineering Journal, 260, pp. 142-151, 2015.
Ang, W.S., Tiraferri, A., Chen, K.L. & Elimelech, M., Fouling and Cleaning of RO Membranes Fouled by Mixtures of Organic Foulants Simulating Wastewater Effluent, Journal of Membrane Science, 376(1), pp. 196-206, 2011.
Li, X., Yan, D., An, G., Jing, D. & Li, J., Fouling and Cleaning of Reverse Osmosis Membranes duing Municipal Tap Water Treatment on a Pilot-scale Plant, Journal of Water Sustainability, 1(1), pp. 139-151, 2011.
Madaeni, S.S. & Samieirad, S., Chemical cleaning of reverse osmosis membrane fouled by wastewater. Desalination, 257(1), pp. 80-86, 2010.
Lee, S. & Elimelech, M., Salt cleaning of organic-fouled reverse osmosis membranes,Water research, 41(5), pp. 1134-1142, 2007.
Ang, W.S., Lee, S. & Elimelech, M., Chemical and physical aspects of cleaning of organic-fouled reverse osmosis membranes, Journal of Membrane Science, 272(1), pp. 198-210, 2006.
Hung, P.V.X., Oh, B.S., Tung, B.X., Oh, S.G., Kim, K.S., Kim, S.J. & Jang, A., Reflection of the structural distinctions of source"different Humic Substances on Organic Fouling Behaviors of SWRO Membranes, Desalination, 318, pp. 72-78, 2013.
Tang, C.Y., Kwon, Y.N. & Leckie, J.O., Fouling of Reverse Osmosis and Nanofiltration Membranes by Humic Acid"effects of Solution Composition and Hydrodynamic Conditions, Journal of Membrane Science, 290(1), pp. 86-94, 2007.
Melian-Martel, N., Sadhwani, J.J., Malamis, S. & Ochsenk1/4hn-Petropoulou, M., Structural and Chemical Characterization of Long-term Reverse Osmosis Membrane Fouling in a Fullscale Desalination Plant, Desalination, 305, pp. 44-53, 2012.
Gabelich, C.J., Ishida, K.P., Gerringer, F.W., Evangelista, R. & Kalyan, M., Control of Residual Aluminum from Conventional Treatment to Improve Reverse Osmosis Performance, Desalination, 190(1), pp. 147-160, 2006.
Sioutopoulos, D.C., Goudoulas, T.'., Kastrinakis, E.G., Nychas, S.G. & Karabelas, A.J., Rheological and Permeability Characteristics of Alginate Fouling Layers Developing on Reverse Osmosis Membranes during desalination, Journal of membrane science, 434, pp. 74-84, 2013.
Li, H., Xia, H., & Mei, Y., Modeling organic fouling of reverse osmosis membrane: From adsorption to fouling layer formation. Desalination, 386, pp. 25-31, 2016.
Andes, K., Bartels, C.R., Liu, E. & Sheehy, N., Methods for Enhanced Cleaning of Fouled RO Elements, The International Desalination Association (IDA) World Congress on Desalination and Water Reuse, Tianjin, China, 2011.
Rodrguez, J.J., Jimenez, V., Trujillo, O. & Veza, J., Reuse of Reverse Osmosis Membranes in Advanced Wastewater Treatment, Desalination, 150(3), pp. 219-225, 2002.
Lawler, W., Antony, A., Cran, M., Duke, M., Leslie, G. & Le-Clech, P., Production and Characterisation of UF Membranes by Chemical Conversion of Used RO Membranes, Journal of Membrane Science, 447, pp. 203-211, 2013.
Garca-Pacheco, R., Landaburu-Aguirre, J., Molina, S., Rodrguez-Saez, L., Teli, S.B. & Garca-Calvo, E., Transformation of end-of-life RO Membranes into NF and UF Membranes: Evaluation of Membrane Performance, Journal of Membrane Science, 495, pp. 305-315, 2015.
Manttari, M., Pihlajamaki, A. & Nystrm, M., Effect of pH on Hydrophilicity and Charge and Their Effect on the Filtration Efficiency of NF Membranes at Different pH, Journal of Membrane Science, 280(1), pp. 311-320, 2006.
Luo, J., & Wan, Y., Effects of pH and Salt on Nanofiltration"a Critical Review, Journal of membrane Science, 438, pp. 18-28, 2013.