Determination of the Optimum Hydraulic Retention Time in Two-Stage Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Bioreactor for Landfill Leachate Treatment


  • Eli Prasetyo Department of Chemical Engineering, Gadjah Mada University,
  • Hanifrahmawan Sudibyo Center for Energy Studies, Gadjah Mada University,
  • Wiratni Budhijanto Chemical Engineering, Gadjah Mada University,



anaerobic fluidized bed reactor, biogas, hydraulic retention time, immobilization, landfill leachate, zeolite.


Leachate in Indonesian landfill sites poses a high risk to the surrounding environment should there be leakage in the accumulating ponds. Anaerobic digestion is an attractive option to clean up leachate, mostly due to the affordability of its operational cost. To enhance the efficiency of leachate digestion, anaerobic microbes were immobilized on the surface of natural zeolite powder. The powder was fluidized in a mesophilic anaerobic fluidized bed reactor (AFBR) for more stable biofilm formation. The AFBR scheme was split into two stages, with the first stage dominated by the acidogenic process and the second stage dominated by the methanogenic process. The dominating microbes in each stage were provoked by pH control to maintain the first stage acidic at pH 5-5.5 and the second stage neutral at pH 7-7.5. The first stage was run at five different hydraulic retention times (HRTs), while the second stage was run at three different HRTs to determine the optimum HRT for each stage. For acidogenic AFBR with HRTs of 5 days and 2.5 days, the VFA concentration profile increased for a longer period compared to the other HRTs. The COD removal efficiency at steady state was almost identical for all HRTs. For methanogenic AFBR, all three HRTs showed an identical rate of biogas formation at steady state.


Download data is not yet available.


Renou, S., Givaudan, J.G., Poulain, S., Dirassouyan, F. & Moulin, P., Landfill Leachate Treatment: Review and Opportunity, Journal of Hazardous Material, 150(3), pp. 468-493, 2008.

Iaconi, C.D., Ramadori, R. & Lopez, A., Combined Biological and Chemical Degradation for Treating a Mature Municipal Landfill Leachate, Biochemical Engineering Journal, 31(2), pp. 118-124, 2006.

Park, S., Choi, K.S., Joe, K.S., Kim, W.H. & Kim, H.S., Variations of Landfill Leachate's Properties in Conjunction with the Treatment Process, Environmental Technology, 22(6), pp. 639-645, 2001.

American Public Health Association (APHA), Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, New York: American Public Health Association, 2005.

Rabah, F.K.J. & Dahab, M.F., Nitrate Removal Characteristics of High Performance Fluidized-Bed Biofilm Reactors, Water Research, 38(17), pp. 3719-3728, 2004.

Hazmi, A., Desmiarti, R., Waldi, E.P. & Emeraldi, P., Preliminary Study on Treatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) by Sand Filtration-DBD Plasma System, Journal of Engineering and Technological Sciences, 48 (1), pp. 21-30, 2016.

Ward, A.J., Hobbs, P.J., Holliman, P.J. & Jones, D.L., Optimization of the Anaerobic Digestion of Agricultural Resources, Bioresource Technology, 99(17), pp. 7928-7940, 2008.

Demirel, B. & Yenigun, O., Two-Phase Anaerobic Digestion Processes: A Review, Journal Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, 77(7), pp. 743-755, 2002.

Liu, Y. & Tay, J.H., Metabolic Response of Biofilm to Shear Stress in Fixed Film Culture, Journal of Applied Microbiology, 90(3), pp. 337-342, 2001.

Alkarimiah, R., Mahat, S.B., Yuzir, A., Din, M.F. & Chelliapan, S., Performance of an Innovative Multi-Stage Anaerobic Reactor during Start-up Period, African Journal of Biotechnology, 10(54), pp. 11294-11302, 2011.

Van Lier, J.B., Van Der Zee, F.P., Tan, N.C.G., Rebac, S. & Kleerebezem, R., Advances in High Rate Anaerobic Treatment: Staging of Reactor Systems, Water Science and Technology, 44(8), pp. 15-25, 2001.

Echigu, E.A. & Ghally, A.E., Kinetic Modelling of Continuous-Mix Anaerobic Reactors Operating under Diurnally Cyclic Temperature Environment, American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 10(2), pp. 130-142, 2014.

Walker, M., Zhang, Y., Heaven, S. & Banks, C., Potential Errors in the Quantitative Evaluation of Biogas Production in Anaerobic Digestion Processes, Bioresource Technology, 100(24), pp. 6339-6346, 2009.

Heidrich, E.S., Curtis, T.P. & Dolfing, J., Determination of the Internal Chemical Energy of Wastewater, Environ. Sci. Technol., 45(2), pp. 827-832, 2011.




How to Cite

Prasetyo, E., Sudibyo, H., & Budhijanto, W. (2017). Determination of the Optimum Hydraulic Retention Time in Two-Stage Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Bioreactor for Landfill Leachate Treatment. Journal of Engineering and Technological Sciences, 49(3), 388-399.