Strengthening INORMALS Using Context-based Natural Language Generation


  • Soni Yora Telkom University
  • Ari Moesriami Barmawi Graduate School of Informatics, School of Computing, Telkom University, Kawasan Pendidikan Telkom, Sukapura, Kec. Dayeuhkolot, Bandung 40257, Indonesia



Baudot-Murray code, INORMALS, linguistic-based steganography, natural language generation, sentence paraphrasing


The noiseless steganography method that has been proposed by Wibowo can embed up to six characters in the provided cover text, but more than 59% of Indonesian words have a length of more than six characters, so there is room to improve Wibowo?s method. This paper proposes an improvement of Wibowo?s method by modifying the shifting codes and using context-based language generation. Based on 300 test messages, 99% of messages with more than six characters could be embedded by the proposed method, while using Wibowo?s method this was only 34%. Wibowo?s method can embed more than six characters only if the number of shifting codes is less than three, while the proposed method can embed more than six characters even if there are more than three shifting codes. Furthermore, the security for representing the number of code digits is increased by introducing a private key with the probability of guessing less than 1, while in Wibowo?s method this is 1. The naturalness of the cover sentences generated by the proposed method was maintained, which was about 99% when using the proposed method, while it was 98.61% when using Wibowo?s method.


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How to Cite

Yora, S., & Barmawi, A. M. (2022). Strengthening INORMALS Using Context-based Natural Language Generation. Journal of ICT Research and Applications, 16(2), 101-122.