Properties of Polymer Electrolyte Membranes Prepared by Blending Sulfonated Polystyrene with Lignosulfonate
AbstractA polymer electrolyte membrane widely used in PEMFCs and DMFCs is a perfluorosulfonated membrane (the Nafion membrane). This perfluorosulfonated membrane material exhibits good chemical stability and proton conductivity, but it is very expensive and difficult to recycle. There is a high methanol crossover in DMFCs that causes a decrease in efficiency and performance of the fuel cell, so that a polymer electrolyte membrane with a low methanol crossover is needed as a substitute for the Nafion membrane. One of the materials that can be used as a polymer electrolyte membrane is the polyblends from sulfonated polystyrene-lignosulfonate (SPS-LS). Such polyblends were prepared by casting a polymer solution and characterized as polyelectrolyte membrane for DMFCs. The SPS was prepared by sulfonation of polystyrene with acetyl sulfate as the sulfonating agent. The membranes of the SPS-LS were characterized by analysis of functional groups, mechanical properties and methanol permeability. The maximum mechanical properties of the SPS-LS membrane were observed at an LS ratio of 7.5%. However, the methanol permeability of the membrane increased with the increase of the LS ratio in the SPS-LS membranes. The properties of the membranes, especially their mechanical properties and methanol permeability, were close to that of Nafion 117 membrane, so SPS-LS membranes have high potential for use as polymer electrolyte membrane for direct methanol fuel cells.
Zaidi, S.M.J. & Matsuura, T., Polymer Membranes for Fuel Cells, New York, Springer, 2009.
Vasquez, L.O., Fuel Cell Research Trends, New York, Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2007.
Zhao, T.S., Kreuer, K.D. & Nguyen, T.V., New York, Advances in Fuel Cell, Elsevier, 2007.
Sammes, N., Fuel Cell Technology, London, Springer Verlag, 2006.
Larminie, J. & Dioks, A., Fuel Cell Systems Explained, New York, John Wiley & Sons. Ltd, 2003.
Zhao, T.S., Micro Fuel Cells Principles and Applications, London, Academic Press, 2009.
Chen, S.L., Bocarsly, A.B. & Benziger, J, 2005, Nafion-Layered Sulfonated Polysulfone Fuel Cell Membranes, J. Power Sources, 152, 27-33.
Dai, C.A., Liu, C.P., Lee, Y.H., Chang,C.J., Chao, C.Y.&Cheng, Y.Y., Fabrication of Novel Proton Exchange Membranes for DMFC via UV Curing, J. Power Sources,177, pp. 262-272, 2008.
Lee, C.H., Park, C.H. & Lee, Y.M., Sulfonated Polyimide Membranes Grafted with Sulfoalkylated Side Chains for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) Applications, J. Memb. Sci., 313, pp. 199-206, 2008.
Chen, X., Yin, Y., Chen, P., Kita, H.& Okamoto, K.I., Synthesis and Properties of Novel Sulfonated Polyimides Derived from Naphthalenic Dianhydridefor Fuel Cell Application, J. Memb. Sci., 313, pp. 106-119, 2008.
Heo, K.B., Lee, H.J., Kim, H.J., Kim, B.S., Lee, S.Y., Cho, E., Oh, I.H., Hong, S.A. & Lim, T.H., Synthesis and Characterization of Cross-Linked Poly(Ether Sulfone) for A Fuel Cell Membrane, J. Power Sources, 172, pp. 215-219, 2007.
Tiitu, M., Torkkeli, M., Serimaa, R., Makela, T. & Ikkala, O.T., Self-Assembly and Flow Alignment of Protonically Conducting Complexes of Polystyrene-Block-Poly(4-Vinylpyridine) Diblock Copolymer with Phosphoric Acid, Solid State Ionic, 176, pp. 1291-1299, 2005.
Shin, J.P., Chang, B.J., Kim, J.H., Lee, S.B. & Suh, D.H, Sulfonated Polystyrene/PTFE Composite Membranes, J. Memb. Sci., 251, pp. 247-254, 2005.
Zhang, X., Benavente, J. & Valls, R.G., Porous Lignosulfonate Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells, J. Memb. Sci., 276, pp. 301-307, 2006.
Carretta, N., Tricoli, V. & Picchioni, F., Ionomeric Membranes Based on Partially Sulfonated Poly(Styrene): Synthesis, Proton Conduction and Methanol Permeation, J. Memb. Sci., 166, pp. 189-197, 2000.
Smitha, B., Sridhar, S. & Khan, A.A., Synthesis and Characterization of Proton Conduction Polymer Membranes for Fuel Cell, J. Memb. Sci., 225, pp. 63-76, 2003.
Zhu, X., Liang,Y., Pan, H., Jian, X. & Zhang, Y.,Synthesis and Properties of Novel H-Bonded Composite Membranes from Sulfonated Poly(Phthalazinone Ether)S for PEMFC, J. Memb. Sci., 312, pp. 59-65, 2008.
Guan, R., Zou, H., Lu, D., Gong, C. & Liu, Y., Polyethersulfone Sulfonated by Chlorosulfonic Acid Andits Membrane Characteristics, European Polymer Journal, 41, pp. 1554-1560, 2005.
Martins, C.R., Ruggeri, G. & Paoli, M.A.D, Synthesis in Pilot Plant Scale and Physical Properties of Sulfonated Polystyrene, J. Braz. Chem. Soc., 14, pp. 797-802, 2003.
Zhang, X., Benavente, J. & Valls, R.G., Lignin-Based Membranes for Electrolyte Transference, J. Powes Sources, 145, pp. 292-297, 2005.
Gonggo, S.T., Arcana, I.M., Radiman, C.L. & Bundjali, B., Synthesis andCharacterization of Polyblends from Sulfonated Polystyrene- Lignosulfonate as Ionomer Membranes, International Journal of Materials Science (IJoMS), 6, pp. 1-14, 2011.
Wilkinson, Zhang, D.P.J., Hui, R., Fergus, J. & Li, X., Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Material Properties and Performance, New York, CRC Press, 2010.