Optimal Control and Cost Effectiveness Analysis of SIRS Malaria Disease Model with Temperature Variability Factor


  • Temesgen Duressa Keno Department of Mathematics, Adama Science and Technology University, Adama, Ethiopia
  • Oluwole Daniel Makinde Faculty of Military Science, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa
  • Legesse Lemecha Obsu Department of Mathematics, Adama Science and Technology University, Adama, Ethiopia




cost-effectiveness analysis, malaria disease, optimal control, SIRS model, temperature variability


In this study, we proposed and analyzed the optimal control and cost-effectiveness strategies for malaria epidemics model with impact of temperature variability. Temperature variability strongly determines the transmission of malaria. Firstly, we proved that all solutions of the model are positive and bounded within a certain set with initial conditions. Using the next-generation matrix method, the basic reproductive number at the present malaria-free equilibrium point was computed. The local stability and global stability of the malaria-free equilibrium were depicted applying the Jacobian matrix and Lyapunov function respectively when the basic reproductive number is smaller than one. However, the positive endemic equilibrium occurs when the basic reproductive number is greater than unity. A sensitivity analysis of the parameters was conducted; the model showed forward and backward bifurcation. Secondly, using Pontryagin?s maximum principle, optimal control interventions for malaria disease reduction are described involving three control measures, namely use of insecticide-treated bed nets, treatment of infected humans using anti-malarial drugs, and indoor residual insecticide spraying. An analysis of cost-effectiveness was also conducted. Finally, based on the simulation of different control strategies, the combination of treatment of infected humans and insecticide spraying was proved to be the most efficient and least costly strategy to eradicate the disease.


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