Genetic Diversity of Indigofera tinctoria L. in Java and Madura Islands as Natural Batik Dye based on Inter-simple Sequence Repeat Markers


  • Muhammad Rifqi Hariri Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Bogor Agricultural University, Dramaga, Bogor, West Java 16680
  • Tatik Chikmawati Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Bogor Agricultural University, Dramaga, Bogor, West Java 16680
  • Alex Hartana Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Bogor Agricultural University, Dramaga, Bogor, West Java 16680



indigo, genetic diversity, polymorphic bands, population structure


Indigo leaves (Indigofera tinctoria L.) are utilized as a source of batik dye in Java and Madura islands, Indonesia. Batik makers from the islands collect indigo leaves from wild plants. Continuous collection of wild plants from their natural habitat may decrease their diversity. The present research was conducted to analyze the genetic diversity and population structure of I. tinctoria L. from Java and Madura. 55 indigo accessions were collected from 10 locations in Java and Madura. The indigo DNA was extracted and amplified using 15 ISSR primers. A total of 123 bands showed 50-90% polymorphic loci. PCA and UPGMA were used to analyze the data. All indigo accessions were clustered into 4 groups at a 60% similarity coefficient: a group consisting of Madura accessions, a group consisting of East Java accessions, a group consisting of Central Java accessions, and a group consisting of West Java accessions. Accessions collected from the same or adjacent populations tended to show similar ISSR characteristics. The genetic diversity of indigo in Java and Madura islands is relatively high (%P = 68.3), but the diversity residing within each population is lower (37%) than that between populations (63%).


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