Study on Heat Island Effect Induced by Land Use Change Increased Temperature in Metropolitan Jakarta


  • Sopia Lestari Environmental Science Study Program, Graduate Program, University of Indonesia
  • Setyo S. Moersidik Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Indonesia
  • Fadli Syamsudin Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology (BPPT), Jakarta



heat island effect, industry, land use change, local warming, transportation, trend


The heat island (HI) effect in metropolitan Jakarta was studied using air temperature measurements at 9 meteorological stations in Jakarta, Tanjung Priok, Serang, Halim, Cengkareng, Pondok Betung, Curug, Bogor, Citeko during 1986-2008 and Serpong during 2008-2011 and 2013; land use for forest, industry, water, settlement, open/cleared land in 1997, 2004, 2009, 2012; and total number of industries and total number of vehicles during 1986-2011. Harmonic analysis was used to remove the seasonal component from the temperature time series data, which was filtered with the 30-day moving average technique to capture trends whose significance was tested with the Mann-Kendall method. The results show that industry was a major factor in land use change over Jakarta with an increasing growth/year of 502 ha (9.76%) concentrated in the eastern part of Jakarta from 1997 to 2012. Industry had a spatial cover change similar to deforestation and open/cleared land expansion, especially in Jakarta from 2009 to 2012: 38.8%/year (industry), 8.3%/year(deforestation), and 13.8%/year (open/cleared land). The HI effect increased the temperature trend rate/year in Jakarta, Tanjung Priok, Serang, Halim, Pondok Betung, Cengkareng, Curug, and Bogor about 0.051C, 0.021C, 0.018C, 0.012C, 0.006C, 0.006C, 0.005C, and 0.004C from 1986 to 2008, respectively, equivalent to average warming in the city, suburban, and mountainous areas of around 2.5C, 0.6C, and 0.4C, respectively within 100 years from 2009.


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