Estimation of S-wave Velocity Structures by Using Microtremor Array Measurements for Subsurface Modeling in Jakarta


  • Mohamad Ridwan Graduate Research in Earthquakes and Active Tectonics, Faculty of Earth Science and Technology, Institut Teknologi Bandung
  • A. Afnimar Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung,
  • Sri Widiyantoro Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung
  • Masyhur Irsyam Research Center for Disaster Mitigation, Institut Teknologi Bandung
  • Hiroaki Yamanaka 5Department of Environmental Science and Technology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo



Jakarta is located on a thick sedimentary layer that potentially has a very high seismic wave amplification. However, the available information concerning the subsurface model and bedrock depth is insufficient for a seismic hazard analysis. In this study, a microtremor array method was applied to estimate the geometry and S-wave velocity of the sedimentary layer. The spatial autocorrelation (SPAC) method was applied to estimate the dispersion curve, while the S-wave velocity was estimated using a genetic algorithm approach. The analysis of the 1D and 2D S-wave velocity profiles shows that along a north-south line, the sedimentary layer is thicker towards the north. It has a positive correlation with a geological cross section derived from a borehole down to a depth of about 300 m. The SPT data from the BMKG site were used to verify the 1D S-wave velocity profile. They show a good agreement. The microtremor analysis reached the engineering bedrock in a range from 359 to 608 m as depicted by a cross section in the north-south direction. The site class was also estimated at each site, based on the average S-wave velocity until 30 m depth. The sites UI to ISTN belong to class D (medium soil), while BMKG and ANCL belong to class E (soft soil).


Padmosukismo, S. & Yahya, I., The Basement Configuration of the North West Java Area, IPA Proceedings of the 3rd Annual Convention, Jakarta, 1, pp. 129-152, 1974.

Turkandi, T., Sidarto, Agustiyanto, D.A. & Hadiwodjoyo, M.M.P., Geological Map of Jakarta and Kepulauan Seribu Quadrangles Jawa, Geological Research and Development Centre, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, 1992.

Fachri, M., Djuhaeni, Hutasoit, L.M. & Ramdhan, A.M., Stratigraphy and Hydrostratigraphy of Ground Water Basin for Jakarta, Bulletin Geology, 34(3), pp. 169-189, 2002. (Text in Indonesian)

Aki, K., Space and Time Spectra of Stationary Stochastic Waves, with Special Reference to Microtremors, Bulletin of the Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo, 35, pp. 415-456, 1957.

Okada, H., Microtremors as an Exploration Method, Geoexploration Handbook, 2, Society of the Exploration Geophysicists of Japan, 1998.

Okada, H., The Microtremors Survey Method, Geophysical Monograph Series, 12, 2003.

Morikawa, H., Sawada, S. & Akamatsu, J., A Method to Estimate Phase Velocities of Rayleigh Wave Using Microseisms Simultaneously Observed at Two Sites, Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 94(3), pp. 961-976, 2004.

Yamanaka, H. & Ishida, H., Application of Genetic Algorithms to an Inversion of Surface Wave Dispersion Data, Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 86(2), pp. 436-444, 1996.

SNI3-03-1726-2012, Guidelines of Earthquake Resistant Design for Building Structures, The National Standardization Agency of Indonesia,

(Text in Indonesian)

Irsyam, M., Sahadewa, A. & Darjanto, H., Soil Dynamics and Machine Foundation, Institut Teknologi Bandung, ISBN 978-979-1344-24-1,

(Text in Indonesian)

Imai, T. & Tonouchi, K., Correlation of N-value with S-Wave Velocity and Shear Modulus, Proceedings of the 2nd European Symposium on

Penetrating Testing, Amsterdam, Netherlands, pp. 67-72, 1982.

Imai, T., P- and S-Wave Velocities of the Ground in Japan, Proc. 9th, Int. Conf. Soil Mechanics and Foundation Eng., Tokyo, pp. 257-260, 1997.

Ohta, Y. & Goto, N., Empirical Shear Wave Velocity Equation in Terms of Characteristic Soil Indexes, Earthquake Engineering and Structural

Dynamics, 6, pp. 167-187, 1978.

Sykora, D.W. & Stokoe, K.H., Correlation of In Situ Measurement in Sands of Shear Wave Velocity, Soil Characteristics, and Site Conditions,

Geotechnical Engineering Report GR83-33, The University of Texas,Austin, 1983.

Yamanaka, H. & Yamada, N., Estimation of 3D S-wave Velocity Model of Kanto Basin, Japan, Using Rayleigh Wave Phase Velocity, Bulletin of the Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo, 81, pp. 295-301, 2006.