Reliability and Validity of Questionnaire on Assessing the Aesthetic Perception of Design Motif Applied on Sarawak Pua Kumbu Cloth Using the Art Reception Survey (ARS)


  • Wan Juliana Emeih Wahed Institute of Creative Arts and Technology (iCreaTe), Universiti Malaysia Sarawak Jalan Datuk Mohammad Musa, Kota Samarahan, Sarawak 94300
  • Saiful Bahari Hj. Mohd Yusoff Institute of Creative Arts and Technology (iCreaTe), Universiti Malaysia Sarawak Jalan Datuk Mohammad Musa, Kota Samarahan, Sarawak 94300
  • Noorhayati Saad Taylor’s University, Jalan Taylor 1, Subang Jaya 47500 , Selangor


aesthetic experience, perception, Ngepan, traditional costume, design motif


The objective of this study was to assess the reliability of the Art Reception Survey (ARS) in measuring the aesthetic experience of a Pua Kumbu cloth among visitors who visited the textile museums in Kuching Sarawak. Using this instrument with 28 items grouped into 6 factors, the reliability was assessed by measuring its internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Thirty (30) visitors served as respondents in this study, who were from various age groups and different geographic backgrounds. The results from the reliability analysis revealed that the factors had good internal consistency. Cronbach's alpha coefficient ranged from α = .672 to .978. The results also indicate that Negative Emotion, Expertise and Positive Attraction produced a low intraclass correlation coefficient. Negative Emotion and the first items from two other factors revealed poor item-scale correlations. This study suggests the removal of the Negative Emotion factor, which was revealed to be irrelevant in measuring the aesthetic experience of the Pua Kumbu cloth, and of items 1 of both Expertise and Positive Attraction, making the remaining 21 items in the instrument reliable to measure the aesthetic experience of the respondents towards the Pua Kumbu cloth.


Minority Rights Group International, Indigenous Peoples and Ethnic Minorities in Sarawak, Minority Rights Group International,, (7 April 2019).

Sim, T.T. & Khan, T.H., Reimaging Iban Longhouses in Urban Context: A Study in Sarawak, Scottish Journal Of Arts, Social Science and Scientific Studies, Malaysia, 18(1), pp. 3-11, 2014.

Adam, A.A., Pua Kumbu (Berhantu), Harian Metro, https://www.hmetro, (5 May 2019).

Jehom, W.J., Memories of Textiles Narratives: Iban Weavers Restoring Pua Kumbu Knowledge in Sarawak, Gender Studies Social, 2017.

Daro, M., Dalam Adat Perkahwinan Masyarakat Iban di Pekan Engkilili, Degree dissertation, Art Management, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, 2014. (Text in Malayan)

Wahed, W.J.E. & Pitil, P.P., Ngepan Indu Iban: The Aesthetic Features of Female Iban Costume in Sarawak, 2nd Asia International Conference of Arts & Design, Langkawi, Malaysia, 2018.

Kanyan, R. & Zainurul, A.A.R., Exploring the Semiotics of the Dayak Motifs in Sarawak, Social Sciences Postgraduate International Seminar (SSPIS), 2015.

Magiman, M.M., Ritual "Makan Tahun' Masyarakat Kadayan di Kg. Selanyau Daerah Kecil Berkenu, Sarawak, (Unpublished doctoral thesis), Universiti of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 2012. (Text in Malayan)

Simpson, P.L.P., A Philosophical Commentary on the Politics of Aristotle, University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, 1988.

Markovic, S., Components of Aesthetic Experience: Aesthetic Fascination, Aesthetic Appraisal, and Aesthetic Emotion, Iperception, 3(1), pp. 1-17, 2012. DOI: 10.1068/i0450aap

Cskszentmihalyi, M., Beyond Boredom and Anxiety, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA, 1975.

Cskszentmihalyi, M., Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience, Harper & Row, New York, 1990.

Ward, M.O., Grinstein, G. & Keim, D., Interactive Data Visualization Foundations, Techniques, and Applications, Second Edition, pp. 73-128, HumanPerceptionAndInformationProcessing_73-128.pdf, (18 February 2018).

Vandelabeele, B., Schopenhauer on the Values of Aesthetic Experience, The Southern Journal of Philosophy, XLV, 2007.

Schindler, I., Hosoya, G., Menninghaus, W., Beermann, U., Wagner, V., Eid, M. & Scherer, K.R., Measuring Aesthetic Emotions: A Review of the Literature and A New Assessment Tool, PLoS ONE 12(6), pp. e0178899, 2016. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0178899

Csikszentmihalyi, M., Jenseits von Angst und Langeweile: Im Tun aufgehen, (translation of Beyond Fear and Boredom: I'm Ready to Go), Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart, 2008. (Text in Germany)

Hager, M., Hagemann, D., Danner, D. & Schankin, A., Assessing Aesthetic Appreciation of Visual Artworks - The Construction of the Art Reception Survey (ARS), Psychology of Aesthetic, Creativity and the Arts, 6(4), pp. 320-333, 2012.

Isaac, S. & Michael, W.B., Handbook in Research and Evaluation, Educational and Industrial Testing Services, San Diego, CA, 1995.

Hinton, P.R., Brownlow, C., McMurray, I. & Cozens, B., SPSS Explained, Routledge, Taylor & Francis, 2004.