Use of Design Theories and Principles in Visual Brand Identity Elements in Commercial and Retail Banks
Keywords:aesthetics, branding, spatial design, VBI, logos
Studies on the processes that link logos and space design aesthetics to visual perception and recognition of visual brand identity (VBI) remain scant. Consequently, this study analyzed the visual correspondence between visual brand identity elements such as logos and interior spaces in commercial retail banking companies by assessing the foundations of their aesthetics formation and the role of aesthetic principles, aesthetic appraisal, and aesthetic impression. Using a qualitative approach, four commercial retail banking companies in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia were analyzed through semi-structured interviews with professional designers and design academics. A comparative method was used to determine the visual correspondence between the aesthetics of the logos and the interior spaces. The findings confirmed the importance of using design characteristics and theories for designing the elements of VBI. The results encourage the use of design for building visual correspondence between the elements of a visual identity of brands. This study provides a useful addition to knowledge on the place of design principles in the creation of VBI.
Keller, K.L., Strategic Brand Management: Measuring and Managing Brand Equity, Ed. 2, Prentice Hall, 2003.
Pittard, N., Ewing, M. & Jevons, C., Aesthetic Theory and Logo Design: Examining Consumer Response to Proportion across Cultures, International Marketing Review, 24(4), pp. 457-473, 2007.
Müller, B., Kocher, B. & Crettaz, A., The Effects of Visual Rejuvenation through Brand Logo, Journal of Business Research, 66(1), pp. 82-88, 2013.
Goldman, A., Beardsley’s Legacy: The Theory of Aesthetic Value, The Journal of aesthetics and art criticism, 63(2), pp. 185-189, 2005.
Bargenda, A., Space Design as an Expressive Device in Ambient Marketing: Case Studies of Deutsche Bank and Banca Monte dei Paschi di Siena, Journal of Marketing Communications, 21(1), pp. 78-90, 2015.
Venkatesh, A. & Meamber, L.A., The Aesthetic of Consumption and the Consumer as an Aesthetic Subject, Consumption Markets & Culture, 11(1), pp. 45-70, 2008.
Krishna, A. & Schwarz, N., Sensory Marketing, Embodiment, and Grounded Cognition: Implications for Consumer Behavior, Journal of Consumer Psychology, 24(2), pp. 159-168, 2014.
Bajaj, A. & Bond, S.D., Beyond Beauty: Design Symmetry and Brand Personality, Journal of Consumer Psychology, 28(1), pp. 77-98, 2018.
Phillips, B.J., McQuarrie, E.F. & Griffin, W.G., The Face of the Brand: How Art Directors Understand Visual Brand Identity, Journal of Advertising, 43(4), pp. 318-332, 2014.
Phillips, B.J., McQuarrie, E.F. & Griffin, W.G., How Visual Brand Identity Shapes Consumer Response, Psychology & Marketing, 31(3), pp. 225-236, 2014.
Henderson, P.W., Cote, J.A., Leong, S.M. & Schmitt, B., Building Strong Brands in Asia: Selecting the Visual Components of Image to Maximize Brand Strength, International Journal of Research in Marketing, 20(4), pp. 297–313, 2003.
Müller, B., Kocher, B. & Crettaz, A., The effects of visual rejuvenation through brand logos, Journal of Business Research, 66(1), pp. 82-88, 2013.
Lewalski, Z.M., Product Aesthetics: An Interpretation for Designers, Design & Development Engineering Press, 1988.
Crilly, N., Moultrie, J. & Clarkson, P.J., Seeing Things: Consumer Response to the Visual Domain in Product Design, Design Studies, 25(6), pp. 547-577, 2004.
Csikszentmihalyi, M. & Robinson, R.E., The Art of Seeing: An Interpretation of the Aesthetic Encounter, Getty Center for Education in the Arts, 1990.
Kumar, M. & Garg, N., Aesthetic Principles and Cognitive Emotion Appraisals: How Much of the Beauty Lies in the Eye of the Beholder? Journal of Consumer Psychology, 20(4), pp. 485-494, 2010.
Schmitt, B. & Simonson, A., Marketing Aesthetic: The Strategic Management of Brands, Identity and Image, The Free Press, 1997.
Veryzer, R.W., A Nonconscious Processing Explanation of Consumer Response to Product Design, Psychology & Marketing, 16(6), pp. 497-522, 1999.
Valenza, E., Simion, F., Cassia, V.M. & Umiltà, C., Face Preference at Birth, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 22(4), pp. 892, 1996.
Coates, D., Watches Tell More than Time, McGraw-Hill, 2003.
Berlyne, D.E., Aesthetics and Psychobiology, Meredith Corporation, 1971.
Moshagen, M. & Thielsch, M.T., Facets of Visual Aesthetics, International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 68(10), pp. 689-709, 2010.
Koffka, K., Perception: An introduction to the Gestalt-Theorie, Psychological Bulletin, 19(10), pp. 531, 1922.
Arnheim, R., Entropy and Art: An Essay on Disorder and Order, University of California Press, 1974.
Garner, W.R. and Clement, D.E., Goodness of Pattern and Pattern Uncertainty, Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 2(5-6), pp. 446-452, 1963.
Köhler, W., An Old Pseudoproblem, Naturwissenschaften, 17, pp. 395-401, 1929.
Wertheimer, M., Untersuchungen zur Lehre von der Gestalt (Studies on the Science of Gestalt), Psychologische Forschung, 4, pp. 301-350, 1923.
Bornstein, R. F. & D’agostino, P.R., Stimulus Recognition and the Mere Exposure Effect, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63(4), pp. 545, 1992.
Schroeder, J., Visual Consumption, Routledge, 2002.
Kotler, P., Atmospherics as a Marketing Tool, Journal of Retailing, 49(4), pp. 48-64, 1973.
Orth, U.R., Heinrich, F. & Malkewitz, K., Servicescape interior design and consumers’ personality impressions, Journal of Services Marketing, 26(3), pp. 194-203, 2012.
Morin, S., Dubé, L. & Chebat, J.C., The Role of Pleasant Music in Servicescapes: A Test of the Dual Model of Environmental Perception, Journal of Retailing, 83(1), pp. 115-130, 2007.
Loken, B. & Ward, J., Alternative Approaches to Understanding the Determinants of Typicality, Journal of Consumer Research, 17(2), pp. 111-126, 1990.
Pepper, S.C., Principles of Art Appreciation, Harcourt, Brace and World, 1994.
Geistfeld, L.V., Sproles, G.B. & Badenhop, S.B., The Concept and Measurement of a Hierarchy of Product Characteristics, NA - Advances in Consumer Research Volume 04, William D. Perreault, Jr., ed., ACR North American Advances, 1977.
Underhill, P., Why We Buy – The Science of Shopping, Simon & Schuster, 1999.
Wheeler, A., Designing Brand Identity: An Essential Guide for the Whole Branding Team, John Wiley & Sons, 2017.