MASYARAKAT INFORMASI DAN DIGITAL: Teknologi Informasi dan Perubahan Sosial

Yasraf Amir Pilliang

Abstract


Cyberspace telah mengalihkan berbagai aktivitas manusia (politik, sosial, ekonomi, kultural, spiritual, seksual) di „dunia nyata‟ ke dalam berbagai bentuk substitusi artifisialnya, sehingga apapun yang dapat dilakukan di dunia nyata kini dapat dilakukan dalam bentuk artifisialnya di dalam cyberspace. Cyberspace menciptakan sebuah kehidupan yang dibangun sebagian besar—mungkin nanti seluruhnya—oleh model kehidupan yang dimediasi secara mendasar oleh teknologi, sehingga berbagai fungsi alam kini diambil alih oleh substitusi teknologisnya, yang disebut kehidupan artifisial (artificial life). Pengaruh cyberspace terhadap kehidupan sosial setidak-tidaknya tampak pada tiga tingkat: tingkat individu, antarindividu, dan komunitas. Pertama, pada tingkat individual, cyberspace telah menciptakan perubahan mendasar terhadap pemahaman kita tentang 'identitas'. Kedua, pada tingkat antar-individual, perkembangan komunitas virtual di dalam cyberspace telah menciptakan relasi-relasi sosial yang bersifat virtual di ruang-ruang virtual : virtual shopping, virtual game, virtual conference, virtual sex dan virtual mosque. Ketiga, pada tingkat komunitas, cyberspace diasumsikan dapat menciptakan satu model komunitas demokratik dan terbuka yang disebut Rheingold 'komunitas imaginer' (imaginary community). Di dalam era artifisial dewasa ini, berbagai ruang sosial yang ada di dunia nyata, kini dapat dicarikan substitusinya di dalam dunia informasi digital, dalam wujudnya yang artifisial, yaitu wujud simulasi sosial (social simulation). Cyberspace adalah sebuah ruang utama yang di dalamnya berbagai simulasi sosial menemukan tempat hidupnya. Kata kunci: cyberspace,artificial life, perubahan, simulasi sosial, komunitas imaginer, dunia maya, informasi digital

Cyberspace has transferred various human activities (political, social, economic, cultural, spiritual, sexual) in the 'real world' into the various forms of artificial substitutes, and therefore anything that can be done in the real world can now be done in the form of artificial in cyberspace. Cyberspace creates a life that is, later, built mostly- perhaps entirely- by the model of life that is fundamentally mediated by technology, hence the natural functions now taken over by technological substitutes, called artificial life. The influence of cyberspace on social life is obvious at, at least, three levels: the individual, inter-individual, and communities. First, at the individual level, cyberspace has created a fundamental change to our understanding of 'identity'. Second, at the inter-individual level, the development of virtual communities in cyberspace has created social relations that are virtual in virtual spaces: virtual shopping, virtual games, virtual conferences, virtual sex and virtual mosque. Third, at the community level, cyberspace is assumed to be able to create a model of democratic and open a community that Rheingold called 'imaginary community'. In the era of artificial these days, a variety of social spaces that exist in the real world, can now be substituted in the world of digital information, in its artificial form, i.e. a form of social simulation. Cyberspace is a primary space in which a variety of social simulations find their home. Keywords: cyberspace, artificial life, change, social simulation, imaginary community, virtual world, digital information

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