Analysis and Prediction of Water Balance Using Dynamic Modelling to Solve Water Scarcity in Cimahi


  • Muhamad Fikri Fadhilah School of Life Sciences and Technology, Institut Teknologi Bandung
  • Yayat Hidayat School of Life Sciences and Technology, Institut Teknologi Bandung
  • Anne Hadiyane School of Life Sciences and Technology, Institut Teknologi Bandung



water resources, dynamic model, vegetation cover, absorption wells


Cimahi is one of the most populated, fast-growing cities in Indonesia. Consequently, various environmental problems appear, primarily related to the sustainability of water resources. Exploitation and pollution of water, especially groundwater, are not accompanied by a good water conservation system that ensures proper water infiltration into the soil, causing several locations in the city to experience water deficits. The city may suffer a severe water shortage if this problem is unsolved. This study aims to predict and analyze the need and availability of water in Cimahi in the next few years to determine the right solution to deal with this problem. Analysis and prediction of water availability/needs were carried out by building a dynamic model using STELLA software for simulating the conditions in the next ten years. The results of the model were combined with the applicable spatial policies to formulate possible solutions. Results showed that Cimahi will experience a water crisis starting from 2029 with a total water deficit of 8.22 million M. The model also predicted South Cimahi District is the area with the worst conditions where the water crisis has occurred since 2022 and peaked in 2029 with water sufficiency of only 59.83%. Based on local spatial planning laws and policies, the city's government is advised to improve its catchment area to protect its water resources. The vegetation cover area surrounding the catchment area can be improved, and water absorption capacity can be increased through civil technical actions such as building absorption wells. The model results showed that a proper solution could be done by expanding 142.8 Ha of green/vegetation cover, building 1576 units of absorption wells, and increasing the PDAM supply by 100 l/second.


Widiyanti NLPM, Ristanti NP. Analisis Kualitatif Bakteri Coliform pada Depo Air Minum Isi Ulang di Kota Singaraja, Bali. Jurnal Ekologi Kesehatan [Internet]. 2004 Aug [cited 2021 Oct 4];3(2):64-73. Available from:

Remondi F, Burlando P, Vollmer D. Exploring the hydrological impact of increasing urbanisation on a tropical river catchment of the metropolitan Jakarta, Indonesia. Sustainable Cities and Society [Internet]. 2015 Oct [cited 2022 Sept 24];20:210?221. doi:10.1016/j.scs.2015.10.001

Pemerintah Kota Cimahi. Dokumen Informasi Kinerja Pengelolaan Lingkungan Hidup Daerah Kota Cimahi Tahun 2020 [Internet]. 2021 Jan [cited 2021 Aug 4]. I-7 p. Available from:

Lillesand TM, Kiefer RW. Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation, 3rd Edition. New York: John Wiley and Sons; 1994.

Ffolliot PF, Brooks KN, Magner JA. Hydrology and The Management of Watershed. New York: John Wiley and Sons; 1980

Kubangun SH, Haridjaja O, Gandasasmita K. Model Perubahan Penutupan/Penggunaan Lahan untuk Identifikasi Lahan Kritis di Kabupaten Bogor, Kabupaten Cianjur dan Kabupaten Sukabumi. Majalah Ilmiah Globe [Internet]. 2016 Dec [cited 2021 Oct 4];18(1):21-32. Available from:

Badan Pusat Statistik. Kota Cimahi Dalam Angka Tahun 2021 [Internet]. 2021 Feb [cited 2021 Oct 8]. 6-11 p. Available from:

Salim AG, Dharmawan IWS, Narendra BH. Pengaruh Perubahan Luas Tutupan Lahan Hutan Terhadap Karakteristik Hidrologi DAS Citarum Hulu. Jurnal Ilmu Lingkungan [Internet]. 2019 Sept [cited 2021 Oct 8];17(2):333-40. Available from:

Pemerintah Kota Cimahi. Peraturan Daerah Kota Cimahi Nomor 4 Tahun 2013 tentang Rencana Tata Ruang Wilayah Kota Cimahi Tahun 2012 ? 2032 [Internet]. 2013 Apr [cited 2021 Oct 8]. Available from:

Wahid A. Analisis Faktor-Faktor yang Mempengaruhi Debit Sungai Mamasa. Jurnal SMARTek [Internet]. 2009 Aug [cited 2021 Oct 12];7(3):204-18. Available from:

Pemerintah Provonsi Jawa Barat. Peraturan Daerah Provinsi Jawa Barat Nomor 2 Tahun 2016 tentang Pedoman Pengendalian Kawasan Bandung Utara Sebagai Kawasan Strategis Provinsi Jawa Barat [Internet]. 2016 Aug [cited 2021 Oct 12]. Available from:

Sukmono M. Kemampuan Sumur Resapan Selama Empat Puluh Hari Pada Awal Musim Hujan, Wilayah Studi: Kelurahan Maleber Kota Bandung. Jurnal Potensi [Internet]. 2015 Mar [cited 2021 Nov 2];17(1):8-16. Available from: