New Method of Materials Flow Calculation for Double-String SLCI Type Cement Plant (Part 2: Suspension Preheater and Calciners)
In many industries, energy auditing is important as the basis for controlling processes and designing additional equipment or modifying an existing plant. However, it requires detailed data of the materials flow, which often cannot be determined easily by direct measurement due to high-temperature limitations. This paper presents the second part of an integrated study to perform energy auditing in a separate line and in-line calciners (SLC-I) type cement plant. The second part of this study, as presented in this paper, focused on the materials flow calculation for eight separate cyclones and two calciners. The least square method was employed for solving the obtained overdetermined system equations. Using the operation data from Part 1 of the study, calculation of the detailed materials flow in each cyclone was executed. The results showed that the separation efficiency of cyclones 1A, 2A, 3A, 4A and 1B, 2B, 3B, 4B was 93.86%, 89.80%, 84.41%, 81.98% and 93.96%, 88.70%, 88.53%, 80.72% respectively and the estimated calcination percentage of kiln feed coming out of the ILC and the SLC was 85.3% and 56.3%, respectively. These values are impossible to be measured directly in the cyclones and calciners during plant operation.
Rivendra, R., Sudheer, B., Kumar, P., Suresh, J., Babu & Rajani Kant, D., Detailed Energy Audit and Conservation in a Cement Plant, International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET), 2(01), pp 248-256, 2015.
Anantharaman, N., Heat Audit in Cement Industry (1500 tpd), International Journal of Science Technology & Engineering, 3(10), pp. 12-18, 2017.
Avami, A. & Sattari, S., Assessment of Heat Saving Opportunities of Cement Industries of Iran, Proceedings of the 3rd IASME WISEAS International Conference on Heat, Environment, Ecosystem and Sustainable Development, Agios Nikoaous, Greece, pp. 585-593, 2007.
Khongprom, P. & Suwanmanee, U., Environmental Benefits of the Integrated Alternative Technologies of the Portland Cement Production: A Case Study in Thailand, Engineering Journal, 21(7), pp. 15-27, 2017. DOI: 10.4186/ej.2017.21.7.15.
Nskov, L.K., Dam-Johansen, K., Glarborg, P., Jensen, P.A. & Larsen, M.B., Combustion of Solid Alternative Fuels in the Cement Kiln Burner, Kgs. Lyngby: Technical University of Denmark (DTU), 2012.
Mikul?i?, H., von Berg, E., Vujanovi?, M. & Dui?, N., Numerical Study of Co-firing Pulverized Coal and Biomass inside a Cement Calciner, Waste Management & Research, 32, pp. 661-669, 2014. DOI: 10.1177/0734242X14538309.
Chao C.Y., Kwong, P.C., Wang, J.H., Cheung, C.W., Kendall, G., Co-firing Coal with Rice Husk and Bamboo and the Impact on Particulate Matters and Associated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Emissions, Bioresour Technology, 99(1), pp 83-93, 2008. DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech. 2006.11.051
Kourounis, S. Tsivilis, S., Tsakiridis, P.E., Papadimitriou, G.D. & Tsibouki, Z., Properties and Hydration of Blended Cements with Steelmaking Slag, Cement and Concrete Research, 37, pp. 815-822, 2007. DOI: 10.1016/j.cemconres.2007.03.008.
Varma A.B. & Gadling P.P., Additive to Cement, A Pozzolanic Material-Fly Ash, International Journal of Engineering Research, 5(3), pp. 558-564, 2016.
Al-Chaar G.K, Alkadi M., Yaksic, D.A. & Kallemeyn, L.A., The Use of Natural Pozzolan in Concrete as an Additive or Substitute for Cement, ERDC/CERL TR-11-46, 2011. DOI:10.2174/1874836801307010033.
Allahverdi, A. & Salem, S.H., Studies on Main Properties of Ternary Blended Cement with Limestone Powder and Microsilica. Iranian Journal of Chemical Engineering, 4(1), pp. 3-13, 2007.
Ayu, T.T., Hailu, M.H., Hagos, F.Y. & Atnaw, S.M., 2015, Heat Audit and Waste Heat Recovery System Design for a Cement Rotary Kiln in Ethiopia: A Case Study, International Journal of Automotive and Mechanical Engineering (IJAME), 12, pp. 2983-3002, 2015. DOI: 10.15282/ijame.12.2015.14.0249.
Riyanto, H. & Martowibowo, S.Y., Optimization of Organic Rankine Cycle Waste Heat Recovery for Power Generation in a Cement Plant via Response Surface Methodology, International Journal of Technology, 6(6), pp. 938-945, 2015. DOI: 10.14716/ijtech.v6i6. 1695.
Kawasaki Plant System, Ltd., Waste Heat Recovery Power Generation (WHRPG) for Cement Plant, Heat Saving Seminar, Mexico, 2007.
Ali, A. & Mohammad, R.V., Waste Heat Recovery Power Generation System for Cement Production Process, IEEE Transaction on Industry Application, 51(1), pp. 13-19, 2015.
Firman, B.J. & Muhammad, A., Integrated System of Thermochemical Cycle of Ammonia, Nitrogen Production, and Power Generation, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 44(33), pp. 17525-17534, 2019. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2019.05.110.
Firman, B.J., Darmanto, P.S. & Muhammad, A., CO2-free Power Generation Employing Integrated Ammonia Decomposition and Hydrogen Combustion-based Combined Cycle, Thermal Science and Engineering Progress, 19, 100672, 2020.
Paa, D.I. & Darmanto, P.S., Numerical Study on the Influence of Rate of Kiln Feed On The Pressure Drop and Separated Efficiency of the Top Cyclone in Cement Plant, Proceedings Seminar Nasional Tahunan Teknik Mesin XIII (SNTTM XIII), 2014. DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2006.11.051. (Text in Indonesian)
Darmanto, P.S., Astina, I.M. & Syahlan, A., Design and Implementation of De-Duster for Improving Fine Coal Quality in a Cement Plant. International Conference on Fluid and Thermal Heat Conversion (FTEC), Tongyeong, South Korea, 2009.
Mikul?i?. H., Von Berg, E., Vujanovi?, M. & Dui?, N., Numerical Study of Co-Firing Pulverized Coal and Biomass Inside a Cement Calciner, Waste Management & Research, 32, pp. 661-669, 2014. DOI: 10.1177/ 0734242X14538309.
Amila, C.K., Morten, C.M. & Lars-Andr T., Numerical Modeling of the Calcination Process in a Cement Kiln System, Proceedings of the 58th SIMS, September 25th-27th, Reykjavik, Iceland, 2017. DOI: 10.3384/ecp1713883.
Grzegorz, B., Jacek, W. & Boles?aw, D., Modification of the Inlet to the Tertiary Duct in the Cement Kiln Installation, Chemical and Process Engineering, 37(4), pp. 517-527, 2016. DOI: 10.1515/cpe-2016-0042.
Claus B., Modernization and Production Increase with Cement Kilns, Humbolt Report, 2000.
Xavier D?Hubert, Latest Burner Profiles, Global Cement Magazine, 03, 2017.
Niki G. & Akshey B., Design of High Efficiency Cyclone for Tiny Cement Industry, International Journal of Environmental Science and Development, 2(5), pp. 350-354, 2011. DOI: 10.7763/IJESD.2011.V2. 150.
Hrvoje, M., Von Berg, E., Milan, V., Peter, P., Reinhard, T. & Neven, D., Numerical Analysis of Cement Calciner Fuel Efficiency and Pollutant Emissions, Clean Tech Environ Policy, 15, pp. 489-499, 2013. DOI: 10.1007/s10098-013-0607-5.
Copertaro, E., Chiariotti, P., Donoso, A.A.E., Paone, N., Peters, B. & Ravel, G.M., A Discrete-Continuous Method for Predicting Thermochemical Phenomena in a Cement Kiln and Supporting Indirect Monitoring, Engineering Journal, 22(6), pp. 165-183, 2018. DOI: 10.4186/ej.2018.22.6.165.
Anton, H. & Rorres, C., Elementary Linear Algebra, 9th Edition, John Wiley and Sons Inc., United States, 2005.
Markovsky, I and Usevich, K., Low Rank Approximation, Communications and Control Engineering, , Springer-Verlag London Limited , 2012. DOI 10.1007/978-1-4471-2227-2.
Darmanto, P.S., Muzakki, I.H., Astina, I.M, Juangsa, F.B.,Amalia, A. & Syahlan, A., New Method on the Materials Flow Calculation for Double Strings SLCI Type Cement Plant (Part 1: The Whole Clinker Plant), Journal of Engineering and Technological Sciences, 53(5), 210506, 2021. DOI: 10.5614/j.eng.technol.sci.2021.53.5.6.
Smidth F.L, Plant Services Devision, Heat Balances, International Cement Production Seminar, Lecture 5.13A, FL Smidth Inc, 1990.
Duda, W.H., Cement Data Book I, 3rd edition, International Process in the Cement Industry, Bouverlag GmBH Weisbaden Und Berlin, 2000.
Amalia, A., Syahlan, A. & Darmanto, P.S., Heat Auditing of Gresik and Tonasa Plants, Internal Project Report of Indonesian Cement and Concrete Institute, 2017. (unpublished)
Amalia, A., Syahlan, A,. and Darmanto, P.S., Design and Implementation of Hot Gas System for Raw Coal Drying Process in Tonasa Plant, Internal Project Report of Indonesian Cement and Concrete Institute, 2006. (unpublished)
Fidaros, D.K., Baxevanou, C.A., Dritselis, C.D. & Vlachos, N.S., Numerical Modelling of Flow and Transport Processesing a Calciner For Cement Production, Powder Technology, 171, pp. 81-95, 2007. DOI: 10.1016/j.powtec.2006.09.011.
Darmanto P.S. & Amalia, A., Analysis of High Clinker Ratio of Portland Composite Cement (PCC), South African Journal of Chemical Engineering, 34, pp. 116-126, 2020. DOI: 10.1016/j.sajce.2020.07.010.