Cultural Code Analysis of the Integration of Pintados Design in Furniture Product Development using Semiotics and Quality Function Deployment
Keywords:consumer culture, cultural codes, Pintados tattoo design, quality function deployment, semiotics
This study consisted of a design research into the application of Pintados tattoo patterns in a furniture product design and used semiotic theories to explore furniture product design methods. The research was carried out in three phases: (1) semiotic analysis (thematic analysis), (2) Quality Function Deployment (technical case study), and (3) cultural code analysis. The purpose was to find new strategies to convey scientific-based design information in introducing the cultural connotations of Pintados tattoo patterns to modern design. The main results of this study were: (1) the developed Pintados furniture design was semiotically projected onto a traditional time development axis, a localized spatial development axis, and a cultural conforming/cultural difference axis; (2) the cultural code analysis revealed that the psychological aspect reflects affect, transmission, and identification codes, while the behavioral aspect generates function and transmission codes, and the physical aspect expresses aesthetic, transmission, style and hue codes; (3) designers are recommended to start from their own traditional roots, meaning in this case that the ‘culturally literate market’ must be part of the Visayan community and must be aware of the Pintados tattoo tradition. By considering developments from the pre-colonial past to the present, we can assess the paradigm shift of cultural codes from the traditional interpretation to the contemporary modern understanding, stripped of preconceived biases imposed by the hegemonic Western mindset. These biases, which are a systemic problem in the process of semiotic practice (discourse, design, production and distribution), can be addressed by art and design appreciation and a thorough analysis of consumer culture.
Kress, G. & Leeuwen, T.V., Reading Images: The Grammar of Visual Design, ed. 2, UK: Routledge, 2006.
Lloren, G., Socio-Cultural Appropriation of Sex-Sell Billboard Ads: A Multimodal Study on the Grammar of Sexually Implicit Advertising Text and Images, A Philippine Journal of Communication, Media, and Society, 14(2), pp. 1-24, Nov 2017.
Tobin, J., Money, Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers, 1256, 1992.
Jie, W., Applied Research on Semiotics in Interior Design, Ph.D. dissertation, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, Pécs, 2018.
Rose, G., Visual Methodologies, London: SAGE Publications, 2007.
Barthes, R. & Lavers, A., Mythologies, New York: Hill and Wang, 1972.
Jau-Hui, L., Ho, M.C. & Yang, Y.F., Research on Culture Code Deployment in Product Design, Journal of Design Research, Design Study; Phase 6 (2006/07/01), P140-146. DOI: 10.30178/SJYJ.200607.0014. 2006.
McCracken, G., Culture and Consumption: New Approaches to the Symbolic Character of the Consumer Goods and Activities, Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1990.
Alcina, F.I., Gutiérrez, L. & Kobak, C.J., History of the Bisayan People in the Philippine Islands, Manila: University of Santo Tomás, 2005.
Goldstein-Gidoni, O., The Production and Consumption of ‘Japanese Culture’ in the Global Cultural Market, Journal of Consumer Culture, 5(2), pp. 155-179, Jul 2005.
Possamaï, A., Cultural Consumption of History and Popular Culture in Alternative Spiritualities, Journal of Consumer Culture, 2(2), pp. 197-218, Jul 2002.
Howes, D., Cross-Cultural Consumption: Global Markets, Local Realities, ed. 1, Routledge, 1996.
Tomlinson, J., Globalization and Culture, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999.
Featherstone, M., Undoing Culture: Globalization, Postmodernism and Identity, London: SAGE Publishing, 1995.
Hannerz, U., Cultural Complexity: Studies in Social Organization of Meaning, New York: Colombia University Press, 1992.
Hall, S., Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices, London: SAGE and the Open University, 1997.
Douglas, M. & Isherwood, B., The World of Goods: Towards an Anthropology of Consumption, New York: W.W. Norton & Co, 1979.
Gotdiener, M., Hegemony and Mass Culture: A Semiotic Approach, University of Chicago Press, 90(5), pp. 979-1001, 1985.
Mercado, L., Soul and Spirit in Filipino Thought, Philippine Studies, 39(3), pp. 287-302, 1991.
Xua, C., Xiao Talks: On Tattooing in Early Philippine History, YouTube, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=35q-9W8yXA0 (1 June 2021).
Garcia-Merritt, G., Inked Lives: Tattoos, Identity, and Power, Master Theses, Department of Anthropology, Iowa State University, 2014.
Gilbert, S., Tattoo History, An Anthology of Historical Records of Tattooing throughout the World, New York: Juno Press, 2000.
Lombroso, C., Gibson, M. & Rafter, N.H., Criminal Man, NC: Duke University Press, 2006.
Mignolo, W.D., Local Histories/Global Designs: Coloniality, Subaltern Knowledge, and Border Thinking, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2012.
Berg, M., In Pursuit of Luxury: Global History and British Consumer Goods in the Eighteenth Century, Past and Present, 182(1), pp. 85–142, 2004.
Pomeranz, K., The Great Divergence: China, Europe, and the Making of the Modern World Economy, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2000.
de Grazia, V., Irresistible Empire: America’s Advance through 20th-Century Europe, Cambridge: Belknapp Press, 2005.
Mazlish, B., Consumerism in the Context of the Global Ecumene, The Global History Reader, Mazlish, B. & Iriye, A., New York: Routledge, pp. 125-132, 2005.
Stearns, P. N., Consumerism in World History: The Global Transformation of Desire, London: Routledge, 2001.
Mateo, F.V., Challenging Filipino Colonial Mentality with Philippine Art, Master Theses, Department of International Studies, University of San Francisco, 2016.
Yang, Y., Hsiao W., & Jau Hui. L. Discourse of Design Culture Code: A Supplement of Design Aesthetics. Applied Mechanics and Materials; Zurich Vol. 209-211, (Oct 2012): 191-195, 2012.
Chandler, D., Semiotics for Beginners by Daniel Chandler, visual-memory.co.uk (9 June 2018).
Dehe, B. & Bamford, D., Quality Function Deployment and Operational Design Decisions: A Healthcare Infrastructure Development Case Study, Production Planning and Control, 28(14), pp. 1177-1192, Jul 2017.
Evans, J.R. & Lindsay, W.M., The Management and Control of Quality, Cincinnati: West Publishing, 1996.
Waterworth, A. & Eldridge, S., An Investigation on the Application of QFD in E-commerce, International Journal of Productivity and Quality Management, 5(3), pp. 231-251, 2010.
Valenzuela A. The Philippine Furniture Industry (Homestyle). https://bit.ly/3P0P0iY (7 December 2018).
De Lange N. Securing the Philippine Future Industries – Furniture, https://industry.gov.ph/industry/furniture/ (6 December 2018).
Philippines Furniture Market Outlook to 2021, Ken Research Private Limited, https://www.kenresearch.com/blog/2017/10/philippines-furnitu
re-market-outlook-to-2021-ken-research/ (December 2018).
Ho, M.C., Sung, T.C., Chan, K.S. & Haung, T.M., Analysis of the Factors that Influence Design Strategies, Journal of Design, 2(1), 2018.
Leong, D. & Clark, H., Culture-based knowledge towards new design thinking and practice – A Dialogue, Design Issues, 19(3), pp. 48–58, 2003.
Anacion, D.C., Resurrecting the ‘Pintado’ Tattoo, ‘TATU’ Symposium, http://savvy-doublemint.blogspot.com/2008/05/resurrecting-pintado-tatt
oo.html (18 August 2018).
Buhat, K., Our Pintado bangles are still here!, Instagram. https://www.instagram.com/p/Bhd8LIeDDMd/ (December 2018).
Tuazon, N., Catriona Gray’s National Costume at Miss Universe 2018 is called LuzViMinda.
fQmLBWiCcIqFL.99. 2018 (December 2018).
Salvador-Amores, A., Tapping Ink, Tattooing Identities: Tradition and Modernity in Contemporary Kalinga Society, North Luzon, Philippines, Diliman Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press, 2013.