• Deny Willy Junaidy Human and Interior Space Research Group, Faculty of Art and Design, ITB
  • Georgi V. Georgiev Center for Ubiquitous Computing, University of Oulu, Finland
  • Jake Kaner School of Art and Design, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, United Kingdom.
  • Eljihadi Alfin Human and Interior Space Research Group, Faculty of Art and Design, ITB


interior spatial dimensions, user preference, associative concept, network analysis


This study proposed a fundamental technique for evaluating the preferences of interior space users by capturing their verbally expressed preferences and then determining word associations. To accomplish this, the Pajek visualization software for large network analysis was employed in conjunction with the USF Word Association dictionary to visualize the structures and network depths of the derived associative meanings. The generated associative words were then qualitatively categorized into taxonomic word groups to reveal 13 dimensions of perceived interior-environmental quality, as follows: House-related, Territorial, Impression, Activity, Active Element of Nature, Nature, Building Materials, Companion, Household Basics, Color, Location, Composition, and Time Period. A factor analysis was then conducted to sort the generated associative words according to Out- Degree Centrality/ODC score. These were validated into five factors that appeared to influence the comfort levels of interior space users. These five factors and 13 dimensions are useful as objective bases for determining the composition of adjectival pairs through the Semantic Differential (SD) method, which helps designers and architects evaluate interior space preferences.

Author Biographies

Deny Willy Junaidy, Human and Interior Space Research Group, Faculty of Art and Design, ITB

Senior Lecturer and Researcher for the Human and Interior Space Research Group, Faculty of Art and Design, Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB), Bandung, Indonesia

Georgi V. Georgiev, Center for Ubiquitous Computing, University of Oulu, Finland

Associate Professor, Center for Ubiquitous Computing, Faculty of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, University of Oulu, Finland

Jake Kaner, School of Art and Design, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, United Kingdom.

Professor, Associate Dean of Research, School of Art and Design, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, United Kingdom.


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