Non-linear Isotherm Models, Cadmium Kinetics, and Biosorption Thermodynamics of Dried Biomass of Native Aphanothece sp. in a Batch System

Awalina Satya, Ardiyan Harimawan, Gadis Sri Haryani, Tjandra Setiadi


Dried biosorbent was prepared from Aphanothece sp. cyanobacteria harvested from a photobioreactor system fed with atmospheric carbon dioxide. Cadmium-ion biosorption of the prepared biosorbent from aqueous solution was characterized by non-linear (Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin–Radushkevich) isotherms, non-linear kinetics (pseudo first-order and pseudo second-order) and thermodynamic analysis. The optimum conditions were pH 8.0, 30°C, 0.1 g/L biomass, and 60 min contact time. The biosorption efficiencies exceeded 90%. The low-range data (initial Cd concentration C0 = 1.09–6.23 mg/L) and high-range data (C0 = 5.41–83.07 mg/L) were best fitted to the Langmuir model, with maximum uptake capacities of 12.01 and 187.5 mg/g (R2 = 0.995 and 0.996). In the Dubinin–Radushkevich isotherm model, the mean biosorption energy was 12.91 kJ/mol, suggesting that ion exchange was the working mechanism. The biosorption apparently followed pseudo second-order kinetics (R2 = 0.994–0.999; k2 = 2.04 E-03 to 3.86 E-02 g/mg min). The biosorption process was energetically feasible (∆G0 = −13.47–−8.88 kJ/mol), exothermic (∆H0 = −74.82 kJ/mol) and tended to become more ordered (∆S0 = −0.204 kJ/mol K) towards the end of the process. The biosorbent was reusable through three adsorption/desorption cycles in 1 M HCl.


Aphanothece sp.; biosorption; cadmium; equilibrium isotherms; non-linear; pseudo first-order; thermodynamic.

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